Tag Archives: Election of 1876

For Remembrance Sunday/Veterans Day—who was our foe and what was our quarrel? Did our enemies actually threaten our freedom, or were the wars of the 20th century all ploys for the destruction of freedom? At this time we should remember what they died for, and the price they paid for peace, even more than the individuals who died—we should remember our heritage, and Samuel J. Tilden….

In Flanders Fields the poppies blow 
Between the crosses row on row, 
That mark our place; and in the sky 
The larks, still bravely singing, fly 
Scarce heard amid the guns below.

We are the Dead. Short days ago 
We lived, felt dawn, saw sunset glow, 
Loved and were loved, and now we lie 
In Flanders fields.

Take up our quarrel with the foe: 
To you from failing hands we throw 
The torch; be yours to hold it high. 
If ye break faith with us who die 
We shall not sleep, though poppies grow 
In Flanders fields.

Who was exactly the foe?  What was our quarrel with the foe?  What major issues of freedom or democracy really separated Kaiser Wilhelm II’s Germany from King George V’s England?  Why should the United States and Canada have fought for the destruction of the Austro-Hungarian Empire?  It seems that all of the major nations involved in World War I (except POSSIBLY Tsarist Russia) were already headed (prior to World War I) towards one closely related formulations of “Social Democracy” in which “public welfare” outweighs “Freedom” and “Constitutional Government” and preponderant values.

Yes, it’s Remembrance Day/Remembrance Sunday again, as it always is just one week after Bonfire Day when we “Remember, Remember the Fifth of November” and that’s just three days after the Day of the Dead, All Souls and All Saints Day.  It’s not for nothing that a now retired (and free) house-elf of mine named Antonio Rodriguez said that November was the saddest month of the year, “cuando se nota que se alargan las noches es el mes más repleno de mis memorias….el día se acaba muy rapido, cuando recordamos que así de repente pasa la vida“¹.

This November, the re-election of Barack Hussein Obama has inexplicably saddened me, depressed me so much more than I expected.   Because I fully expected Obama to be re-elected, and I had no enthusiasm for Romney at all—zero, zip, zilch.  But it somehow feels that night has really fallen now.  Nobiscum semel occidit brevis lux, dormienda est una nocte perpetua, said Catullus², as if presaging Antonio’s autumnal depression by 2000+ years.

So for this November, I am going to suggest that we sing dirges in the dark for the day that Freedom Died.   I am not at all sure which day we should call the final death of American Freedom, it has been such a long, slow process.  And after all, truthfully, I write this memorandum with the full (and not even terribly uncertain) expectation that I will not be arrested for writing this piece, not today Saturday November 10, nor Sunday November 11, nor even on Monday November 12…..

But as sure as 6079 Winston Smith knew he would receive that final bullet to the head in 1984, I feel certain that, eventually, another good Judge appointed by some de facto President with the advice and consent of an unthinking senate will summon me formally or informally and “want to talk to me” again, about my writings, or about my protests. It will happen under color of law, just as it did when those wonderful Southern District of Texas Judges Lynn N. Hughes and Janis Graham Jack “wanted to talk to me” in 2006-2008.   I left Texas because I really didn’t want to talk to them anymore, and they’ve left me alone since.  But I know that with the passage of time they or their successors will deprive me of my liberty without due process of law, for having written this, or some other challenge to the eviction or enclosure of the free from their land, or death of the brave in their homes….

So right now, let’s remember the Declaration of Independence that American men have been fighting and dying for since 1776, and let us remember that the government of the United States, since at least 1933, and possibly a long time before that, has become so oppressive and intrusive into our everyday lives as to render laughably trivial all of the oppressions and intrusions complained of in that remarkable text penned by Thomas Jefferson and the Committee of Five….(John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Robert Livingston, and Roger Sherman were the other four).  

Let us then think of the limited, Democratic-Republican, form of government framed in the summer of 1787, and how that was revered as a “new covenant” between the people and a “more perfect union” than had ever been created before.   Americans started dying for the Constitution in the War of 1812 for the first time, but well over half a million died in 1861-1865, and one third of the United States were laid to ruin and waste, over constitutional disagreements.

From that time on, from the reconstruction which began during that War Between the States and Continued until Samuel J. Tilden gave up the Presidency he had fairly won in 1876 to Rutherford B. Hayes.  Tilden gave up the Presidency to which he had been elected to avoid a second Civil War, but in his “concession speech” delivered eight months after the election, on June 13, 1877, in the City of New York which had elected him, and to which he had given both the greatest Public Library and Public Park and most honest government of any City in the world, he foresaw America’s future of bought and bartered elections.

As reported in the New York Herald on page 3, in column 2:

Everybody knows that, after the recent election, the men who were elected by the people President and Vice President of the United States were “counted out,” and men who were not elected were “counted in” and seated .

NO PERSONAL WRONG.
I disclaim any thought of the personal wrong involved in this transaction. Not by any act or word of mine shall that be dwarfed or degraded into a personal grievance, which is, in truth, the greatest wrong that has stained our national annals. To every man of the four and a quarter millions who were defrauded of the fruits of their elective franchise it is as great a wrong as it is to me. And no less to every man of the minority will the ultimate consequences extend. Evils in government grow by success and by impunity. They do not arrest their own progress. They can never be limited except by external forces.

MUST NOT BE CONDONED.
If the men in possession of the government can, in one instance, maintain themselves in power against an adverse decision at the elections, such an example will be imitated. Temptation exists always. Devices to give the color of law, and false pretences on which to found fraudulent decisions, will not be wanting. The wrong will grow into a practice, if condoned-if once condoned.

In the world’s history changes in the succession of governments have usually been the result of fraud or force. It has been our faith and our pride that we had established a mode of peaceful change to be worked out by the agency of the ballot box. The question now is whether our elective system, in its substance as well as its form, is to be maintained.

THE QUESTION OF QUESTIONS.
This is the question of questions. Until it is finally settled there can be no politics founded on interior questions of administrative policy. It involves the fundamental right of the people. It involves the elective principle. It involves the whole system of popular government. The people must signally condemn the great wrong which has been done to them. They must strip the example of everything that can attract imitators. They must refuse a prosperous immunity to crime. This is not all. The people will not be able to trust the authors or beneficiaries of the wrong to devise remedies. But when those who condemn the wrong shall have the power they must devise the measure which shall render a repetition of the wrong forever impossible.

Should we remember and mourn Samuel Tilden’s concession as the day that Freedom Died in America?  I know that my great-grandparents were only children or teenagers on that day, and they still believe in American Freedom, even living in the South which had been conquered (but which was at least partially freed by the “Compromise of 1877” which led to Samuel Tilden’s giving up the Presidency).

For the next 50 years, American Freedoms slipped away slowly but surely in the name of “beneficial” governmental regulation, starting with vast grants of undeveloped Western Lands to the railroad companies in the 1860s-1870s.   During the War of 1861-1865, many strange things unrelated to the wars happened, including the creation of the Department of Agriculture in 1862, the first branch of government lacking any roots in the original constitutional conception of the Federal Government.  

The power of the Union, and the fall of the Confederacy, were both related to the relative development of the railroads in the North and South³.  But it was after the war, during the Reconstruction Presidencies of Andrew Johnson and Ulysses S. Grant, that these “Imperial” railroads became so great as basically to be threats to the supremacy of the United States government.  And the railroads spun off subsidiary “support” industries such as steel and coal, and eventually oil, which themselves threatened to consume the United States Government, and in fact, did so.

The great railroads grew and acquired astronomical powers in the years 1865-1900 in both the U.S. and Canada as a result of the vast giveaway of public land to the private sector (the earliest form of “corporate welfare”).   Another political compromise resulted from the tensions created by the increase in the power of the railroads:  ten years after Samuel J. Tilden’s concession speech, the first post-War Democrat to be elected, Grover Cleveland, a New York successor of Tilden, approved the governmental regulation of the railroad industry by the Interstate Commerce Commission in 1887, which was the first “Independent Commission” created outside the constitution (and was dissolved only in 1996 under the Presidency of another Democrat, William J. “Bill” Clinton).  That same year, Congress voted to elevate Lincoln’s non-cabinet level “Department of Agriculture” to the full cabinet, and Grover Cleveland signed this bill in 1889.  By several extensions including the Hatch Act of 1887 and the Smith-Lever Act of 1914, the Federal Government, by and through the Department of Agriculture, extended both regulatory and educational functions to every county in the United States of America.  

Few people today even blink at the idea that Federal power over our everyday lives should have begun in the Department of Agriculture, but on Remembrance Day, I think these are things to be remembered….and up to a point, they are things to be regretted and mourned.   NOTHING in the Original Constitution (never mind the Declaration of Independence) would have allowed for the Federal Government moving into the fields of agricultural production and education but this was the path that “social democracy” took in the United States—slow but steady step-by-step infiltration.

Regulation and the destruction of the original constitutional form of government continued with the Antitrust Acts of  the 1890s which, again, were designed to restrain the major industries which the Federal Government had brought into being in the USA during and after the war between the states.  And finally, the Federal Reserve and the Income Tax capped the merger of Federal and Inter-state Corporate business during the Presidency of Woodrow Wilson (although both policies were formulated by Republicans Theodore Roosevelt and William Howard Taft).

During this same half century (1865-1915), other innovations were taking place in America that destroyed the original framework of limited government, in particular, concerns for “public health” became paramount.  Starting with the creation of a Department of Chemistry inside the U.S. Department of Agriculture, and culminating Theodore Roosevelt’s “Biologics Act of 1902” and “Food and Drug Act of 1906” the government somehow found itself always wiser and more capable of judging what made the public healthy than any private choice or consumer (market-based) decision-making….and this trend towards “consumer protection” culminated with the Constitutional Amendment permitting Federal Prohibition in 1919.

As is well-known, the “Prohibition Era” led to the first ever “crime wave” in U.S. History, and evasion of government regulation has become the chief “non-violent” form of crime ever since (with major “violent” episodes during Prohibition and the “War on Drugs” of course leading to ever greater suppression of human rights in the name of public safety.”

Today, we cannot turn on or off the electric lights or water in our homes without being directly or indirectly subject to massive Federal regulation, supplemented and implemented by the States.

So did American Freedom die on the day that the Food & Drug Act was implemented in June of 1906?  If so, it died a very quiet death.  Or did American Freedom die the day that Prohibition was repealed under the administration of Franklin Delano Roosevelt which decided that Constitutional Amendments were no longer going to be necessary to regulate commerce, because it was going to be so easy just to appoint Judges to the Supreme and Circuit Courts who could discover new and previously unrecognized powers to regulate in the Interstate Commerce Clause of Article I of the Constitution.

And to think that, if only Roosevelt had been around to threaten to “pack” the Courts in the 1850s, slavery could have been abolished by Congress without a Civil War, without a Constitutional Amendment, just by KNOWING that the Interstate Commerce Clause permits the regulation of how many chickens a farmer raises for his own and his family’s consumption without ever putting those chickens or their eggs into the stream of interstate commerce….

In fact, in the era of Obama, slavery probably could have been abolished by executive decree without any input from Congress at all…. what a shame that the 19th century was filled with such antiquated notions as “genuine democratic-republican decision-making” limited by the “express powers granted to the Federal government in the constitution.”

So let’s see now—what was our quarrel with Germany during World War I again that led to November 11 being called first “Armistice Day,” then “Remembrance Day”?   Austria-Hungary, France, Germany, and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland had all taken major steps towards “Social Democracy” ahead of the United States, and the United States was basically 20-30 years behind on this particular curve…..

In a strange but true way, the last war that was fought anywhere in the world over real constitutional disagreements was the American War Between the States, and in that war, and in reconstruction culminating in the Hayes-Tilden Compromise of 1877 after the Election of 1876, Freedom and Constitutionally Limited Government suffered a permanent defeat from which they have never recovered.

 So Constitutional government died a slow but painful death.  And somehow, the greatest pain is NOW upon us, as we face another four years under Barack Hussein Obama.

¹ “By the time you can notice that they nights are getting longer, that is the month most filled with memories….the day ends quickly, and this forces us to remember that so quickly does life itself pass.”

² “When for us the brief light has past, we must sleep in eternal night.”

³ A great popular song, “The Night They Drove Old Dixie Down” sung by Joan Baez and Johnny Cash among others, sentimentally commemorates the role of train travel in the War Between the States—but the South’s inability to expand its railroad infrastructure during the war was without doubt one of the key infrastructural reasons for the failure of the Confederate States of America in the first ever Marxist-shaped and envisioned war of “Dialectically Conflicting Modes of Production”:

Virgil Caine is the name and I served on the Danville train ‘Til Stoneman’s cavalry came and tore up the tracks again.

In the winter of ’65, we were hungry, just barely alive. By May the tenth, Richmond had fell; it’s a time I remember, oh so well.

The night they drove old Dixie down: And the bells were ringing. the night they drove old Dixie down.  And the people were singing, they went, “La, la, la”.

Back with my wife in Tennessee, when one day she called to me “Virgil, quick, come see, there go the Robert E. Lee”. 

Now I don’t mind choppin’ wood, and I don’t care if the money’s no good, Ya take what ya need and ya leave the rest. But they should never have taken the very best.

The night they drove old Dixie down: And the bells were ringing, the night they drove old Dixie down; And all the people were singing: they went, “La, la, la”.

Like my father before me, I will work the land.  And like my brother above me, who took a rebel stand.

He was just eighteen, proud and brave, but a Yankee laid him in his graveI swear by the mud below my feet. You can’t raise a Caine back up when he’s in defeat.

The night they drove old Dixie down—And the bells were ringingThe night they drove old Dixie down; And all the people were singing.  They went, “Na, na, na”.

The night they drove old Dixie down: And all the bells were ringing, the night they drove old Dixie down; And the people were singingThey went, “Na, na, na”

March 5, 2011, Inauguration of (unelected) Rutherford B. Hayes (1877), Impeachment of Andrew Johnson (1868), the Boston Massacre (1770), First Temperance Law in America (1623), Copernicus “De Revolutionibus” Banned (1616), 3rd Lateran Council (1179)—on the whole March 5 has not been a good day for Civil Rights in History

March 5 Events in History
 

I confess to have plagiarized the skeleton for this day in history from another site called “www.brainyhistory.com”, although there’s honestly nothing so very brainy about this particular list—see the lack of historically important or even relevant events for most of the 20th century.   However, it seemed like as good a source as any and I have added my own comments where appropriate, so there is “value added” here.  However, I think the list of events in itself is notable: for most of the 20th century, the only events recorded occurred in the entertainment and sports arenas.  Real historical events are largely absent from the 20th century record, although a few start being listed in the 19th century.   In Aldous Huxley’s Brave New World, a mindless addiction to sports, entertainment, and film entertainment (including television), together with free love (consequence and even emotion-free) sex plus constantly piped music in public places, were all integral and indispensable elements and aspects of the world- governmental plan, together with drugs, to keep a zombified and mostly uneducated population completely under control and docile.   In Edward Gibbons’ Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, the historian has a throw-away comment which has become popularized about how the empire entertained and controlled the masses with “bread and circuses”.  It is hard not to feel that there are certain parallels and genuine structural-functional kinship between the socio-political reality of 2nd-3rd century Rome and the modern worldwide “Pax Americana”. The average American can name more sports and movie stars than senators or representatives, and nobody seems happier with this situation than sports and movie stars AND senators and representatives, the latter largely operating behind the scenes occupied by the more flamboyant social and sex lives of the former.   If people think too much, they become dissatisfied, so play music constantly, blast television constantly, and make sure that there is little or no political or philosophical content to either.  That is how you keep a good, quiet, unfree but not unhappy population…..

2010 Gordon Brown, United Kingdom’s Prime Minister, gives evidence to the Iraq Inquiry
1997 Tommy Lasorda, Nellie Fox and Willie Wells for Hall of Fame
1996 Earl Weaver and Jim Bunning, elected to Hall of Fame
1995 21st People’s Choice Awards: Tim Allen wins
1995 Estonia Centrumlinkse Coalition party wins parliamentary election
1995 Graves of czar Nicholas and family found in St. Petersburg
1995 Marc Velzeboer skates world record 3 km short track (5:00.26)
1994 Dottie Mochrie wins Chrysler-Plymouth Tournament of Golf Championship
1994 Largest milkshake (1,955 gallons of chocolate-Nelspruit South Africa)
1994 PBA National Championship won by David Traber
1994 Singer Grace Slick arrested for pointing a gun at a cop
1993 Boston Celtic Larry Bird undergoes backfusion surgery
1993 Fokker 100 crashes at Skopje Macedonia, 81 die
1993 Former Washington D.C. Mayor Marion Barry divorces his wife Effi
1993 Marlins beat Astros 12-8 in their 1st spring training game
1992 Ethic committee votes to reveal congressmen who bounced checks
1991 Iraq repealed its annexation of Kuwait
1991 Reggie Miller (Indiana) begins NBA free throw streak of 52 games
1989 19th Easter Seal Telethon raises $37,002,000
1989 Blains McCallister wins Honda Golf Classic shooting 266
1989 Elly Verhulst runs world record 3000 m indoor (8:33.82)
1986 “Today” tabloid launched (Britain’s 1st national color newspaper)
1985 New York Islander Mike Bossy is 1st to score 50 goals in 8 straight seasons
1984 Supreme Court (5-4): city may use public money for Nativity scene
1984 U.S. accuse Iraq of using poison gas
1983 Bob Hawke (Labour) defeats Australian Prime Minister Malcolm Fraser (Cons)
1983 NSW beat Western Australia by 54 runs to win Sheffield Shield
1982 Gaylord Perry (with 297 wins) signs with Seattle Mariners
1982 Russian spacecraft Venera 14 lands and sends back data from Venus
1981 “Bring Back Birdie” opens at Martin Beck Theater New York City for 4 performances
1981 Ice Dance Championship at Hartford won by Jayne Torvill and C Dean (GRB)
1981 Ice Pairs Champ at Hartford won by Irina Vorobieva and I Lisovski (URS)
1981 Men’s Figure Skating Champions in Hartford won by Scott Hamilton (USA)
1981 U.S. government grants Atlanta $1 million to search for black boy murderer
1980 Earth satellites record gamma rays from remnants of supernova N-49
1979 Voyager I’s closest approach to Jupiter (172,000 miles)
1978 “Hello, Dolly!” opens at Lunt-Fontanne Theater New York City for 152 performances
1978 Landsat 3 launched from Vandenberg AFB, California
1976 British pounds falls below $2 for 1st time
1974 “Candide” opens at Broadway Theater New York City for 740 performances
1974 Ralph Stewart failed in 2nd Islander penalty shot
1973 Yankee pitchers Peterson and Kekich announce they swapped wives
1972 Greek composer Mikis Theodorakis leaves Communist Party
1970 Edison Theater opens at 240 W 47th St. New York City
1970 Nuclear non-proliferation treaty goes into effect
1970 SDS Weathermen terrorist group bomb 18 West 11th St. in New York City
1969 Gold reaches then record high ($47 per ounce) in Paris
1969 Gustav Heinemann elected president of West-Germany
1969 Joe Orton’s “What the Butler Saw,” premieres in London
1968 U.S. launches Solar Explorer 2 to study the Sun
1967 WEDN TV channel 53 in Norwich, CT (PBS) begins broadcasting
1966 75 MPH air currents causes BOAC 707 crash into Mount Fuji, 124 die
1966 Bob Seagren pole vaults 5.19m indoor world record
1966 Player reps elect Marvin Miller, as executive director of Players’ Association
1966 U.S. performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site
1965 1st performance of Walter Piston’s 8th Symphony
1965 Ernie Terrel beats Eddie Machen in 15 for heavyweight boxing title
1964 Atlanta Mayor Ivan Allen, Jr., announces a baseball team is moving there
1964 Emergency crisis proclaimed in Ceylon due to social unrest
1963 Beatles record “From Me to You” and “Thank You Girl”
1962 U.S. performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site
1960 Elvis Presley ends 2-year hitch in U.S. Army
1960 Ice Dance Championship at Vancouver won by Denny and Jones (GRB)
1960 Ice Pairs Championship at Vancouver won by Wagner and Paul (CAN)
1960 Men’s Figure Skating Championship in Vancouver won by Alain Giletti (FRA)
1960 Worlds Ladies Figure Skating Champions in Vanc won by Carol E Heiss (USA)
1959 Iran and U.S. sign economic / military treaty
1958 Explorer 2 fails to reach Earth orbit
1958 KDUH TV channel 4 in Scottsbluff-Hay Spring, NB (ABC) 1st broadcast
1957 Eamon de Valera’s Fianna Fail-party wins election in Ireland
1957 Sergeant Bilko satirizes Elvis Presley (Elvis Pelvin)
1956 “King Kong,” 1st televised
1956 Mickey Wright wins LPGA Jacksonville Golf Open
1955 WBBJ TV channel 7 in Jackson, Tennessee (ABC) begins broadcasting
1954 “Girl in Pink Tights” opens at Mark Hellinger New York City for 115 performances
1952 Terence Rattigan’s “Deep Blue Sea,” premieres in London
1949 Bradman plays his last innings in 1st-class cricket, gets 30
1948 Actor Eli Wallach marries actress Anne Jackson
1948 U.S. rocket flies record 4800 KPH to 126k height
1946 Winston Churchill’s “Iron Curtain” speech in Fulton, Missouri; nothing has ever happened in Fulton, Missouri, before or since he spoke there.
1945 Allies bombs The Hague, Netherlands
1945 Generals Eisenhower, Patton and Patch meet in Luneville
1945 U.S. 7th Army Corps captures Cologne
1945 U.S. Ladies Figure Skating championship won by Gretchen Merrill
1944 1st performance of Walter Piston’s 2nd Symphony
1943 Anti fascist strikes in Italy ultimately lead to collapse of Mussolini and Italy’s realignment with the Anti-Fascist Allies, spelling ultimate doom for Hitler’s Germany.
1943 RAF bombs Essen, Rhineland, Germany
1942 Tito establishes 3rd Proletariat Brigade in Bosnia
1942 Dmitri Shostakovich’ 7th Symphony, premieres in Siberia
1942 Japanese troop march into Batavia
1936 Spitfire makes it’s 1st flight (Eastleigh Aerodrome in Southampton)
1935 1st premature baby health law in U.S. (Chicago)
1934 Mother-in-law’s day 1st celebrated (Amarillo, Texas)
1933 Franklin D. Roosevelt proclaims 10-day bank holiday
1933 Germany’s Nazi Party wins majority in parliament (43.9%-17.2M votes)
1931 Gandhi and British viceroy Lord Irwin sign pact
1928 Karl Zuckmayer’s “Der Hauptmann von Kopenick,” premieres in Berlin
1927 1,000 U.S. Marines land in China to protect American property
1924 Computing-Tabulating-Recording Corp becomes IBM
1924 Frank Carauna, becomes 1st to bowl 2 successive perfect 300 games
1924 King Hussein of Hedzjaz appoints himself kalief
1923 1st old age pension plans in U.S. established by Montana and Nevada
1922 “Nosferatu” premieres in Berlin; Vampires of the World Unite!  You have nothing to lose but your Crypts—you have a World of Cinema and Television shows and popular cultural immortality (“immortality”, a Latin rooted word = “athanati” in Greek = “undead” in English).
1919 Louis Hirsch and Harold Atteridge’s musical premieres in New York City
1917 1st jazz recording for Victor Records released
1912 Spanish steamer “Principe de Asturias” sinks NE of Spain, 500 die
1910 Ramon Inclan’s “La Farsa Infantil de la Cabeza del Dragon,” premieres
1910 Stanley Cup: Montreal Wanderers beat Ottawa Senators, 3-1
1908 1st ascent of Mount Erebus, Antarctica 

1908 Rex Harrison, born in England, actor, My Fair Lady, Dr. Doolittle

 

1907 1st radio broadcast of a musical composition aired
1903 Definitive treaty for construction of Baghdad railway drawn
1900 American Hall of Fame found
1899 1st performance of Edward MacDowell’s 2nd Concerto in D 

1898 Zhou Enlai, Chinese Statesman
1897 Mei-ling Soong, Madame Chiang Kai-shek

 

1896 Italian premier Crispi resigns
1896 Italians governor of Eritrea, General Baldissera, reaches Massawa
1894 Seattle authorizes 1st municipal employment office in U.S. 

1893 Emmett J. Culligan, founder of water treatment organization

 

1877 Rutherford B. Hayes inaugurated as 19th U.S. president; he was the First United States President until George W. Bush in 2000 who was neither fairly elected in the popular vote nor electoral college.  The real winner of the election of 1876 was Samuel J. Tilden, previously Mayor of New York City and Governor of New York, prosecutor of “Boss Tweed” and general White Hat Good Guy Democrat who promised the restoration of civil order and White Rule in the South after the atrocities of Reconstruction and the War Between the States.  President Ulysses S. Grant was suspicious of Tilden and most Republicans were simply unwilling to accept Tilden as President under any conditions.   Constitutional collapse was averted, as it was in 2000, by a massive subversion of the constitution and thwarting of popular will expressed through the ballot.   The “Compromise of 1877” led to the Inauguration of the defeated Republican Candidate Rutherford B. Hayes and the withdrawal of United States Troops from the South, returning de facto and de jure power to White Supremacist (formerly Confederate) majorities throughout the South.  Samuel J. Tilden retired to endow, build, and develop both Central Park and the New York Public Library.  He is one of the unsung heroes of American History.  He could fairly easily have started a second Civil War (with New York this time squarely on the side of the South—there were pro-Southern and anti-Union Draft riots in New York during the four year conflict) but instead Tilden accepted the corrupt result of the Compromise of 1877 to avoid the further destruction to which war would inevitably have led.
1872 George Westinghouse, Jr. patents triple air brake for trains 

1871 Maria do Carmo Geronimo, Brazilian lives to be at least 126
1870 [B] Franc[lin] Norris, U.S., writer, McTeague, Octopus
1870 Rosa Luxemburg, Polish Activist
1869 Michael von Faulhaber, cardinal and archbishop of Munich

 

1868 Arrigo Boito’s opera “Mefistofele,” premieres in Milan
1868 Stapler patented in England by C. H. Gould; plain white paper would never be safe again from repeated stabbing and mutilation.
1868 U.S. Senate organizes to decide charges against President Andrew Johnson; this was not the only idiotic impeachment trial ever actually held in the United States.  The charges against Andrew Johnson were basically that he was being too kind and lenient to his crushed homeland—the Southern United States, after the failure of Constitutional government led to secession and “Civil War” between the States in 1861-65.  As preposterous and unjust as the charges against Johnson were, the charges against William Jefferson Clinton tried in January-February 1999 were even stupider, arising from the President’s dalliance with White House Intern named Monica Lewinsky.  The people of the world for the most part simply looked at the idiots who put Clinton on trial and shook their heads.  The only socially important result of the Clinton Impeachment/Monica Lewinsky trial was that fellatio (female-to-male oro-genital sex) has been generally defined as “not sex” in American culture.  This preposterous result rests on the heads of Bill Clinton and his lawyers, and on his wife Hillary, who is now Secretary of State.
1864 1st track meet between Oxford and Cambridge
1862 Union troops under Brigadier-General Wright occupy Fernandina (on Amelia Island), in far Northeast Florida (Nassau County, north of Jacksonville, next to the Georgia Border).  Fernandina Island has one of the most bizarre histories in the South, as the site of a “Republic of Pirates” in the early years of the Nineteenth Century and many expeditionary exploits relating to U.S.-Spanish relations and the Independence Movement (and U.S. “Manifest Destiny”) in Mexico, Central, and South America.  Amelia Island/Fernandina was a major port for the slave-trade (officially abolished by law, and pursuant to the Constitution, in 1807).
1856 Covent Garden Opera House destroyed in a fire; it was rebuilt in order to serve as the opening setting for “My Fair Lady” starring Rex Harrison, born on this day in 1908…..
1856 Georgia becomes 1st state to regulate railroads; it is not clear whether General William Tecumsah Sherman violated any of the Georgia State Railroad regulations during his March to the Sea and burning of Atlanta in the fall of 1864, or whether the trains continued to operate pursuant to those regulations at all during the Yankee occupation….. Georgia railroads are shown in the movie “Gone with the Wind” but whether or not this portrayal is accurate no evidence of regulation is used as a plot device.   It seems likely that Sherman may have slowed railroad commerce in Georgia appreciably, thus defeating the purpose of the regulations.
1849 Zachary Taylor sworn in as 12th president
1845 Congress appropriates $30,000 to ship camels to western U.S.
1836 Samuel Colt manufactures 1st pistol, 34-caliber “Texas” model—this was during the Texas Revolution, 3 days after the Texas Declaration of Independence at Washington-on-the-Brazos and one day before the Fall of the Alamo on March 6, 1836. 

1824 James Merritt Ives, lithographer, Currier and Ives

 

1821 Monroe is 1st President inaugurated on March 5th, because 4th was Sun
1820 Dutch city of Leeuwarden forbids Jews to go to synagogues on Sundays 

1817 Austen H. Layard, British archaeologist and diplomat

 

1807 1st performance of Ludwig von Beethoven’s 4th Symphony in B
1795 Amsterdam celebrates Revolution on the Dam; Square of Revolution
1795 Treaty of Basel-Prussia ends war with France
1783 King Stanislaus Augustus Poniatowski grants rights to Jews of Kovno
1770 Boston Massacre, British troops kill 5 in crowd was the culmination of civilian-military tensions that had been growing since royal troops first appeared in Massachusetts in October 1768. The soldiers were in Boston to keep order in face of the growing discontent with the heavy taxation imposed by the Townshend acts. But townspeople viewed them not as order keepers but as oppressors and threats to independence. Brawls became common.In 1768, the Commissioners of Customs, who acquired their jobs in Britain and drew their pay from what they collected in America, were so intimidated by the resistance they met in Boston that they demanded military protection. Boston’s fifteen thousand or so residents were clearly the worst malcontents on the North American continent. It was imperative that they be put in their place. 

General Thomas Gage (Commander In Chief of the British Army in America) agreed and ordered the regiments (under the command of British Lt. Colonel William Dalrymple), the “14th West Yorkshire Fuseliers,” and the “29th Worcestershire,” to Boston, which would arrive from Halifax in September. Six weeks later the “64th” and “65th” Regiments, with an addition of a detachment of the “59th” Regiment and a train of artillery with two cannon — in all about 700 men — arrived from Ireland to protect the men who collected customs duties for the King of England. To the people of Boston the coming of the troops was outrageous. They had been fighting for years against infringement by Britain of their right to tax themselves.

In one of the most famous and elaborate of Paul Revere’s engravings, Landing of British Troops at Boston, it shows the arrival of the red-coated British troops. Revere wrote that the troops “formed and marched with insolent parade, drums beating, fifes playing, and colours flying, up King Street. Each soldier having received 16 rounds of powder and ball.” Troops of the 29th, unable to secure lodgings in town, pitched tents on the common. The stench from their latrines wafted through the little city on every breeze.

When Colonel Dalrymple requested that all of his men be assigned to the homes of citizens, the Boston council took a firm stand. It declared that citizens were not required to furnish quarters until all the barracks space was filled, and Castle William, in the harbor, had plenty of empty berths. Besides, British Redcoats had already made a deep impression upon Americans during the French and Indian War. These career soldiers were widely regarded as being surly, brutal, and greedy; and no man of any sense was ready to see even one of them put into the house with his wife and daughters.

Governor Bernard, however, had counted upon dispersing the troops into the homes of malcontents as a way of putting pressure upon them. He declared that concentrating soldiers at Castle William would thwart the decisions made in London. The Boston councilmen held firm and refused to budge. Desperate, the governor designated empty factory buildings and small, empty buildings throughout the city to the troops.

Even under normal circumstances the presence of General Thomas Gage’s troops (nearly one for every four inhabitants) would have led to trouble. Now, the imposition of an occupation force on a city already torn with strife, made bloodshed a foregone conclusion.

By 1770 Boston was an occupied town. It had been compelled to accept the presence of four regiments of British regulars. For eighteen months they had treated the inhabitants with insolence, posted sentries in front of public offices, engaged in street fights with the town boys, and used the Boston Common for flogging unruly soldiers and exercising troops (then acting governor, Lt. Governor Thomas Hutchinson of Massachusetts, refuted these allegations).

It began when a young barber’s apprentice by the name of Edward Garrick shouted an insult at Hugh White, a soldier of the 29th Regiment on sentry duty in front of the Customs House (a symbol of royal authority). White gave the apprentice a knock on the ear with the butt of his rifle. The boy howled for help, and returned with a sizable and unruly crowd, cheifly boys and youths, and, pointing at White, said, “There’s the son of a bitch that knocked me down!” Someone rang the bells in a nearby church. This action drew more people into the street. The sentry found himself confronting an angry mob. He stood his ground and called for the main guard. Six men, led by a corporal, responded. They were soon joined by the officer on duty, Captain John Preston of the “29th,” with guns unloaded but with fixed bayonets, to White’s relief.

The crowd soon swelled to almost 400 men. They began pelting the soldiers with snowballs and chunks of ice. Led by a huge mulatto, Crispus Attucks, they surged to within inches of the fixed bayonets and dared the soldiers to fire. The soldiers loaded their guns, but the crowd, far from drawing back, came close, calling out, “Come on you rascals, you bloody backs, you lobster scoundrels, fire if you dare, God damn you, fire and be damned, we know you dare not,” and striking at the soldiers with clubs and a cutlass.

Whereupon the soldiers fired, killing three men outright and mortally wounding two others. The mob fled. As the gunsmoke cleared, Crispus Attucks (left) and four others lay dead or dying. Six more men were wounded but survived.

Captain Preston, the soldiers, and four men in the Customs House alleged to have fired shots from it were promptly arrested, indicted for murder, and held in prison pending trial for murder in the Massachusetts Superior Court, which prudently postponed the trial until the fall, thus giving the people of Boston and vicinity from whom the jury would be drawn, time to cool off.

All troops were immediately withdrawn from town. John Adams defended the soldiers at their trials (Oct. 24-30 and Nov. 27-Dec. 5, 1770); Preston and four men were acquitted, while two soldiers were found guilty of manslaughter and released after being branded on the hand.

The calm with which the outcome of the trials was accepted doubtless was attributable in large measure to the evidence at the trials that the soldiers had not fired until they were attacked. But another important factor was the withdrawl of the troops from Boston immediately after the “Massacre.” The sending of British warships and troops to Boston for the protection of the American Customs Board and the “Massacre” resulting from the prescence of troops there were, however, ultimately of great significance in the movement toward the revolution.

The “Massacre” served as anti-British propaganda for Boston radicals and elsewhere heightened American fears of standing armies.

1766 Don Antonio de Ulloa takes possession of Louisiana Terr from French, three years after formal transfer of Louisiana West of the Mississippi from French to Spanish ownership in 1763.  His governorship was so ineffective and unpopular that there was a rebellion against Spanish Rule in 1768 which exiled Uloa and briefly restored French “Independence” from New Orleans to St. Louis, but this state of affairs lasted less than nine months (October 27, 1768-July 19, 1769) and ended when Irish-Spanish “Wild Goose” Count Alejandro O’Reilly, born in Dublin in 1722, arrived from Cuba with 2000 Spanish troops, arrested, tried, and executed five of the French Leaders of the short-lived rebellion.  It was a little known and rare occurrence for the White Creoles of the New World to rise up against their Colonial Masters, and this little episode in Louisiana history has gone largely ignored and forgotten for its lack of socio-historical progeny—and for the economic success Spanish “Luisiana” after O’Reilly’s repression of the French Creole uprising.  O’Reilly himself spent less than a year in New Orleans.
1760 Princess Carolina marries General Charles Christian van Nassau-Weilburg
1750 1st American Shakespearean production-“altered” Richard III, New York City
1746 Jacobite troops evacuate Aberdeen, Scotland, so hurriedly that they left a large stock of muskets and gunpowder which fall into the hands of the British and are no longer part of the arsenal in support of Bonnie Prince Charlie which met its final defeat one month and 11 days later on Culloden Muir just outside of Inverness to the east on April 16, 1746.  It was not the sort of withdrawal that makes its way into heroic ballads—one of the Jacobite officers is said to have left his pet cat sleeping in front of the fireplace.  (But history does not appear to record what disposition King George’s Government might have made of the feline aligned with the maligned malcontents who maladroitly miscarried their miniature move towards reverse (anti-Hanoverian) regime change.
1743 1st U.S. religious journal, The Christian History, published by Thomas Prince, Pastor of Boston’s Old South Church throughout , Boston to report on the revivals sweeping America and Europe. One who notably and memorably wrote to Prince in relation to “The Christian History” was Connecticut’s (and Yale University’s) “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God”/”The Ends for Which God Created Earth” preacher (and Vice-President/Killer of Alexander Hamilton—Aaron Burr’s Grandfather) Jonathan Edwards, who described the “Great Awakening” and changes taking place in Northampton (Massachusetts): “There has been vastly more religion kept up in the town, among all sorts of persons, in religious exercises, and in common conversation, than used to be before: there has remain’d a more general seriousness and decency in attending the publick worship; there has been a very great alteration among the youth of the town, with respect to revelling, frolicking, profane and unclean conversation, and lewd songs: instances of fornication have been very rare: there has also been a great alteration amongst both old and young with respect to tavern-haunting. I suppose the town has been in no measure so free of vice in these respects, for any long time together, for this sixty years, as it has been this nine years past. There has also been an evident alteration with respect to a charitable spirit to the poor.” The Christian History ran only two years. However, it’s founder, Thomas Prince was so influential that Prince Street and Princeton, Massachusetts were named after him. Francis Asbury, famed Methodist bishop, described reading the work with profit.  Jonathan Edwards died while President of the College of New Jersey, which also later became known as “Princeton”.
1684 Emperor Leopold I, Hapsburg Holy Roman Kaiser, the Kingdom of Poland, and the Republic Venice signed the “Holy Alliance of Linz”, whereby these three countries would form an alliance against the Turks, who were storing way too much gunpowder in the Parthenon, leading to that beautiful temple’s tragic destruction, but the truth is that the Ottoman Empire by this time was already stagnate and posed little real threat to Europe, especially compared to the events of the 15th-16th century, the time of the Conquest of Constantinople in 1453, the life of St. John Capistran (San Juan Capistrano), and finally the Battle of Lepanto in 1571 which the “Holy League” of Austria, Spain, Naples, Sicily, Sardinia, Savoy, the Republics of Genoa and Venice, and the Papal States turned back the Muslim tide, preventing Europe from becoming an Islamic Continent.   Since 1948, ironically enough, England and other European Countries have been inviting/allowing so many Muslim immigrants into Western Europe that the results of the Battle of Lepanto could well be nullified completely before the 500th anniversary of that event which will happen 60 years, seven months, and two days from the date of this blog on October 7, 2071.  Increasingly it seems that Pakistanis are the most vibrant ethnic group in England, Turks dominate German labor, and Algerians and Moroccans now control their former colonial masters in France.  Where, if anywhere, will it all end?  Today in the wake of the rebellion against Mohamar Ghaddaffi, Italy is being flooded with immigrants from its own former (albeit short lived) colony of Libya. 

1658 Antoine Cadillac, french colonial governor of America—he probably never owned an expensive automobile by a publicly owned General Motors might look like nor imagined what “Body by Fisher” would have meant three hundred-to-three hundred fifty years later.  My Louisiana-Frecnh born grandmother Helen loved Cadillacs (the GM cars) and knew something about the history of Antoine, Sieur de Cadillac, but how few others remember him?

 

1651 South Sea dike in Amsterdam breaks after storm 

1637 John van der Heyden, Dutch painter and inventor, fire extinguisher

 

1623 1st American temperance law enacted, Virginia
1616 Copernicus’ “de Revolutionibus” placed on Catholic Forbidden index; it was in EXCELLENT company of course and the words “Imprimatur, Nihil Obstat” written down by books approved by the Catholic Censors have become synonymous with the prior restraint which is expressly forbidden by the First Amendment.
1579 Betuwe joins Union of Utrecht
1558 Smoking tobacco introduced in Europe by Francisco Fernandes (pardon my French but WHAT AN F-ING DISASTER!)   March 5 should be a day of mourning for the millions of lung-cancer victims killed in Europe and the Americas as a result of this introduction.  I have little or no sympathy for smokers of tobacco in modern times, no more than I do for people who shoot themselves in the head or slit their wrists.  Smoking tobacco is basically an abomination without EVEN as much arguable benefit as smoking Cannabis Sativa L.
1528 Utrecht governor Maarten van Rossum plunders The Hague
1496 English king Henry VII hires John Cabot (Giovanni Caboto) to explore.  Cabot sailed across the North Atlantic to Newfoundland, Labrador, and what is now Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, explored the St. Lawrence River and opened up the great Western North Atlantic/Newfoundland fisheries to English fisherman—one of the greatest food resources ever exploited, paving the way for eventual English Colonization of these areas.
1461 Henry VI was deposed by Edward IV, coincidentally also the Fourth Duke of York, during War of the Roses; Edward IV was also was the 7th Earl of March, the 5th Earl of Cambridge, the 9th Earl of Ulster, and the 65th Knight of the Golden Fleece.  He reigned for Nine Years until he died in 1470 and was then succeeded by Henry VI who returned from but reigned only briefly before being dying under somewhat historically obscure circumstances.  Edward IV’s younger brother Richard became Richard III, the last King before Henry VII instituted the “Tudor” dynasty from Wales and ended the war of the Roses.   Second only two Henry V, “Richard III” is probably the best known of Shakespeare’s history plays and schoolboys, such as the author of this blog, were required to memorize “Now is the winter of our discontent, made glorious summer by this Sun of York, and all that glowered upon our house, in the deep bosom of the ocean buried” Soliloquy for approximately 400 years.  Should I recite it all in print here from memory?  You’ll pass?  Oh well, another time.  “Henry VI, Parts I , II, and III” together form Shakespeare’s longest and least memorable of the history plays, with no Jack Falstaff, no Harry Hotspur, no John of Gaunt, in short none of the wonderful characters that made Shakespeare’s other trilogy, Henry IV, Parts I, II, and III, not only tolerable but memorable. 

1326 Louis I, the Great, King of Hungary, 1342-82, Poland, 1370-82
1324 David II Bruce, king of Scotland, 1331 – 1371

 

1179 3rd Lateran Council (11th ecumenical council) opens in Rome.  March 5 was the first day of the Third Lateran, Eleventh Ecumenical Council.  But this day does not a great event in Christian history but arguably one of key events providing the reasons why the Universal Church failed to stay “universal”, and why the Pope in Rome was for many years seen to be the enemy of good religion and rational social policy.  Just for example, for the first time in Christian history (but in a tradition continuing to the present), priests were forbidden to marry or have friendship with women—even the sometimes apparently misogynistic St. Paul wrote  in one of his foulest moods: “It is better to Marry than to burn”.   The logic and morality behind a Celibate Clergy is simply incomprehensible in light of Christ’s teachings in the Gospels and Paul’s letters, not to mention the reality of human life—but it happened, at least “de jure” (never of course, “de facto”).  Sodomy was also forbidden and punishments provided, although how this prohibition was consistent with or supported the prohibition on priests having normal heterosexual relations to procreate is quite mysterious to the rational human mind.  Other “highlights” of the Third Lateran Council were increasingly oppressive laws against Jews and Muslims and “heretics” living in Christian Countries and provided automatic excommunication for anyone who lent money at interest (then known as “usury” without regard to any legal rate).   The Vatican City in Rome could do well to expunge and reverse all of these ordinances of the 3rd Lateran Council, although some charitable and educational and rational financial measures were also included (most notably positive was the prohibition on charing money for administration of any sacrament).