Tag Archives: Heinrich Himmler

Seventy Years after the War—Will the Joy of Arresting, Defaming, Deporting, and Libelously-Slandering Extremely Old Men never Abate? Who really thinks this is fair? I want to know WHO???? (Yes, if you think it’s fair or just in ANY sense, please write to me!!!!)

With thanks for this story going to Paul Fromm—a great Canadian Patriot, who reports by e-mail:

One More Victim of German Bashing

The RCMP have said that 90 per cent of “refugee” claimants lie. This country is awash with refugee liars — Tamils and Somalis who return to visit the lands they claim to have fled for their lives. Canada’s ethnic-vote chasing politicians do NOTHING!
 
One More Victim of German Bashing

The RCMP have said that 90 per cent of "refugee" claimants lie. This country is awash with refugee liars -- Tamils and Somalis who return to visit the lands they claim to have fled for their lives. Canada's ethnic-vote chasing politicians do NOTHING!

Germans, however, are seen to be passive. Easy to beat up on them and win praise and donations from the vociferous, German-hating "never again" Jewish lobby.

Helmut Oberlander, unlike many of these lying "refugees", has made a major contribution to Canada. He is Volksdeutsche (an ethnic German born in the Ukraine). When National Socialist Germany made its pre-emptive strike on Communist Russia in 1041, the young Oberlander, fluent in Russian, Ukrainian and German,  was conscripted into the German army as a translator. When he came to Canada, he became a builder and developer and built a number of subdivisions around Kitchener, Ontario.

In his old age, his adopted country, egged on by that lobby that wants to continue to fight WW II, sought to strip him of his citizenship and deport him. The battle has taken many turns and cost a king's ransom in legal fees. Announced on the eve of the  70th anniversary of the Soviet "liberation" of Auschwitz (could that be a coincidence?), a Federal Court judge has dismissed his appeal that he served in the German forces under duress.

Despite the National Post (January 22, 2015) misleading label "Nazi-era war crime suspect", the 90-year-old Helmut Oberlander was never charged much less convicted of any crimes. He was a 17-year-old conscript, not a decision-maker.

Former Canadian diplomat and proud member of the Royal Canadian Air Froce (RCAF), Ian Macdonald writes some insightful comments on the latest German-bashing by the Canadian courts.

Paul Fromm
January 25, 2015

Editor
NATIONAL POST
Toronto

Dear Sir

Re: "Nazi war criminal loses appeal"  (January 23, 2015)

The Federal Court judges, colluding with the Jewish Lobby in the persecution of 90 year old  Helmut Oberlander  may know the letter of the law but they clearly know little of the history of WWII nor of Ukraine which exonerates their victim from the charges, in the absence of any criminal act.

For two decades prior to the occupation of the country by German forces, Ukraine had suffered under brutal subjugation by the psychopathic dictator Josef Stalin, who overcame resistance to dispossession and enslavement by using his predominantly Jewish Kommissars to murder 8 million good Christians , many tortured to death in the most gruesome fashion.  To Ukrainians, the Wehrmacht came as liberators, avengers and protectors, making it nonsense to suggest that there was anything reprehensible, let alone criminal, in Ukrainian-German collaboration.

Be that as it may, in the broader context, despite the rhetoric, Allied statesmen knew at the time that the atheistic Soviet Union was a far greater menace to Western Civilization than was highly cultured Nazi Germany, and that the subjects of the genocidal communist dictatorship were our potential friends..This reality, soon after the war, brought the Allies and Germany into common cause, automatically absolving those who from within had earlier opposed Stalin, from "war crimes" charges, or even criticism. 

The communist partisans, who sometimes wore German uniforms when slaughtering civilians to discredit the Wehrmacht, did not abide by the Rules of Warfare, forcing the German Sicherheitsdienst to respond with extreme measures, as would Western armies under similar circumstances.

Since the impetus for the witch hunt for German "War Criminals" comes from genetically-deceitful, vindictive, avaricious Zionist Jews, it is the essence of hypocrisy.  Israeli soldiers, settlers and airmen have murdered many thousands of Palestinians in cold blood.  Although the victims are mostly unarmed women and children, their killers are seldom brought to a court of justice - instead they are commended.and, if the number of victims is high enough, become national heroes.  The Chief Military Rabbi quoted in the Israeli Soldiers Handbook describes the killing of "enemy" civilians as a worthy act, even if they appear friendly.  Many of these racist Israeli war criminals are now living in Canada.  Why have they not been charged?  Perhaps the Learned Judges can explain.

As ever,

Ian V. Macdonald

Judge denies Nazi-era war crime suspect’s attempt to get Canadian citizenship back: ‘Never expressed any remorse’

Republish Reprint
Stewart Bell | January 22, 2015 3:27 PM ET
More from Stewart Bell | @StewartBellNP
The June 3, 1944 photo provided by the U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum shows Heinrich Himmler, centre as he reviews Nazi troops of the Galician SS-Volunteer Infantry Division. 
U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum, courtesy of Atlantic Foto Verlag BerlinThe June 3, 1944 photo provided by the U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum shows Heinrich Himmler, centre as he reviews Nazi troops of the Galician SS-Volunteer Infantry Division.
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TORONTO — A Nazi-era war crime suspect stripped of his Canadian citizenship has lost his latest court appeal after a federal judge dismissed his claim he had served the Germans under duress.

Helmut Oberlander failed to show he had made any effort to leave the Nazi death squad Einsatzkommando 10a, where he was an interpreter, Justice James Russell of the Federal Court wrote in his decision.

“There was no evidence that he was mistreated and no evidence that he sought to be relieved of his duties. He served the Nazi cause for three or four years [and] surrendered at the end of the war,” he wrote.

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Anti-Semitic politician underwent an astonishing transformation after finding out he is a Jew
He also “has never expressed any remorse for being a member of Ek 10a or indicated that he found the activities of the organization abhorrent. There is no evidence that what he did for the organization was inconsistent with his will.”

Mr. Oberlander has been fighting the government’s attempts to revoke his citizenship since 1995, the year Ottawa alleged he had failed to disclose his wartime past when he became a Canadian in 1960.

The case has been in and out of the courts ever since but the 83-page ruling handed down January 13 and posted on the court website on Thursday is a decisive loss for Mr. Oberlander.

“We will revoke citizenship from individuals who obtain it fraudulently to ensure that Canada is not a safe haven for fraudsters and criminals,” said Kevin Menard, spokesman for Citizenship and Immigration Minister Chris Alexander.

The Ukrainian-born Ontario resident was a 17-year-old factory worker when he was forcibly conscripted by the Germans. He said he was told he would be shot if he tried to escape.

But Justice Russell said he had not proven he would be killed for disobedience or desertion. “He gave no convincing evidence that he ever gave any real consideration to ways in which he might extricate or distance himself from the brutal purpose of the organization to which he contributed,” he wrote.

The decision was welcomed by the Friends of Simon Wiesenthal Center, which has long lobbied for action against Nazi war criminals. Avi Benlolo, the President and CEO, encouraged the government “to immediately commence deportation proceedings against Oberlander.”

Meanwhile, his daughter, Irene Rooney, said Mr. Oberlander was “not a ‘Nazi war criminal’ … He was never a Nazi, and has not been found guilty of any war crimes.”
LATEST CANADA VIDEOS
Germans, however, are seen to be passive. Easy to beat up on them and win praise and donations from the vociferous, German-hating “never again” Jewish lobby.
Helmut Oberlander, unlike many of these lying “refugees”, has made a major contribution to Canada. He is Volksdeutsche (an ethnic German born in the Ukraine). When National Socialist Germany made its pre-emptive strike on Communist Russia in 1041, the young Oberlander, fluent in Russian, Ukrainian and German,  was conscripted into the German army as a translator. When he came to Canada, he became a builder and developer and built a number of subdivisions around Kitchener, Ontario.
In his old age, his adopted country, egged on by that lobby that wants to continue to fight WW II, sought to strip him of his citizenship and deport him. The battle has taken many turns and cost a king’s ransom in legal fees. Announced on the eve of the  70th anniversary of the Soviet “liberation” of Auschwitz (could that be a coincidence?), a Federal Court judge has dismissed his appeal that he served in the German forces under duress.
 
Despite the National Post (January 22, 2015) misleading label “Nazi-era war crime suspect”, the 90-year-old Helmut Oberlander was never charged much less convicted of any crimes. He was a 17-year-old conscript, not a decision-maker.
Former Canadian diplomat and proud member of the Royal Canadian Air Froce (RCAF), Ian Macdonald writes some insightful comments on the latest German-bashing by the Canadian courts.
Paul Fromm
January 25, 2015
 
Editor
NATIONAL POST
Toronto
 
Dear Sir
Re: “Nazi war criminal loses appeal”  (January 23, 2015)
The Federal Court judges, colluding with the Jewish Lobby in the persecution of 90 year old  Helmut Oberlander may know the letter of the law but they clearly know little of the history of WWII nor of Ukraine which exonerates their victim from the charges, in the absence of any criminal act.
 
For two decades prior to the occupation of the country by German forces, Ukraine had suffered under brutal subjugation by the psychopathic dictator Josef Stalin, who overcame resistance to dispossession and enslavement by using his predominantly Jewish Kommissars to murder 8 million good Christians , many tortured to death in the most gruesome fashion.  To Ukrainians, the Wehrmacht came as liberators, avengers and protectors, making it nonsense to suggest that there was anything reprehensible, let alone criminal, in Ukrainian-German collaboration.
 
Be that as it may, in the broader context, despite the rhetoric, Allied statesmen knew at the time that the atheistic Soviet Union was a far greater menace to Western Civilization than was highly cultured Nazi Germany, and that the subjects of the genocidal communist dictatorship were our potential friends..This reality, soon after the war, brought the Allies and Germany into common cause, automatically absolving those who from within had earlier opposed Stalin, from “war crimes” charges, or even criticism. 
 
The communist partisans, who sometimes wore German uniforms when slaughtering civilians to discredit the Wehrmacht, did not abide by the Rules of Warfare, forcing the German Sicherheitsdienst to respond with extreme measures, as would Western armies under similar circumstances.
 
Since the impetus for the witch hunt for German “War Criminals” comes from genetically-deceitful, vindictive, avaricious Zionist Jews, it is the essence of hypocrisy.  Israeli soldiers, settlers and airmen have murdered many thousands of Palestinians in cold blood.  Although the victims are mostly unarmed women and children, their killers are seldom brought to a court of justice – instead they are commended.and, if the number of victims is high enough, become national heroes.  The Chief Military Rabbi quoted in the Israeli Soldiers Handbook describes the killing of “enemy” civilians as a worthy act, even if they appear friendly.  Many of these racist Israeli war criminals are now living in Canada.  Why have they not been charged?  Perhaps the Learned Judges can explain.
As ever,
 
Ian V. Macdonald

Judge denies Nazi-era war crime suspect’s attempt to get Canadian citizenship back: ‘Never expressed any remorse’

Stewart Bell | January 22, 2015 3:27 PM ET
More from Stewart Bell | @StewartBellNP

The June 3, 1944 photo provided by the U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum shows Heinrich Himmler, centre as he reviews Nazi troops of the Galician SS-Volunteer Infantry Division.

U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum, courtesy of Atlantic Foto Verlag BerlinThe June 3, 1944 photo provided by the U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum shows Heinrich Himmler, centre as he reviews Nazi troops of the Galician SS-Volunteer Infantry Division,

TORONTO — A Nazi-era war crime suspect stripped of his Canadian citizenship has lost his latest court appeal after a federal judge dismissed his claim he had served the Germans under duress.

Helmut Oberlander failed to show he had made any effort to leave the Nazi death squad Einsatzkommando 10a, where he was an interpreter, Justice James Russell of the Federal Court wrote in his decision.

“There was no evidence that he was mistreated and no evidence that he sought to be relieved of his duties. He served the Nazi cause for three or four years [and] surrendered at the end of the war,” he wrote.

He also “has never expressed any remorse for being a member of Ek 10a or indicated that he found the activities of the organization abhorrent. There is no evidence that what he did for the organization was inconsistent with his will.”

Mr. Oberlander has been fighting the government’s attempts to revoke his citizenship since 1995, the year Ottawa alleged he had failed to disclose his wartime past when he became a Canadian in 1960.

The case has been in and out of the courts ever since but the 83-page ruling handed down January 13 and posted on the court website on Thursday is a decisive loss for Mr. Oberlander.

“We will revoke citizenship from individuals who obtain it fraudulently to ensure that Canada is not a safe haven for fraudsters and criminals,” said Kevin Menard, spokesman for Citizenship and Immigration Minister Chris Alexander.

The Ukrainian-born Ontario resident was a 17-year-old factory worker when he was forcibly conscripted by the Germans. He said he was told he would be shot if he tried to escape.

But Justice Russell said he had not proven he would be killed for disobedience or desertion. “He gave no convincing evidence that he ever gave any real consideration to ways in which he might extricate or distance himself from the brutal purpose of the organization to which he contributed,” he wrote.

The decision was welcomed by the Friends of Simon Wiesenthal Center, which has long lobbied for action against Nazi war criminals. Avi Benlolo, the President and CEO, encouraged the government “to immediately commence deportation proceedings against Oberlander.”

Meanwhile, his daughter, Irene Rooney, said Mr. Oberlander was “not a ‘Nazi war criminal’ … He was never a Nazi, and has not been found guilty of any war crimes.”

LATEST CANADA VIDEOS

Again, with my thanks to Paul Fromm—one of the most level heads in North America:

 

Jewish Holocaust Revisionism Grows: Paul Eisen, David Cole, Gilad Atzmon recognize the Significant Injustices at the End of World War II Inflicted on the German People and even their defeated leadership….

Paul Eisen 

Friday, 25 April 2014

The pictures! The pictures!
This piece by Mark Weber and posted by the IHR is about the German concentration camp of Bergen-Belsen.

No images are more emblematic of the Holocaust narrative than of the camp at Bergen-Belsen – or more accurately, of its liberation by the British in April 1945.

We’ve all seen the pictures – the naked, emaciated bodies being bull-dozed into open pits by cigarette-smoking British Tommies – and these pictures themselves have become emblematic of the Holocaust.

Yet Belsen never was an extermination camp. Well, there’s nothing noteworthy about that – nor was anywhere else. But what is noteworthy is that this fact is widely, even universally, accepted, even by mainstream Holocaust ‘historians’.

But still Belsen’s iconic Holocaust status persists. You can explain away till you’re blue in the face and still their heads will wave slowly from side to side in horrified wonder – the pictures! The pictures!

It all goes to show that the Holocaust is no longer history but,as Jewish theologian Marc Ellis said “is now theology”.

Ellis is wrong. He calls it theology because he believes in it (or more likely, he pretends to believe in it)

Wikipedia defines theology as “the systematic and rational study of concepts of God and of the nature of religious truths”. Augustine of Hippo defined the Latin equivalent, theologia, as “reasoning or discussion concerning the Deity” and Richard Hooker defined it as “the science of things divine”.

My favourite definition is “the study of the mind of God”

But whatever theology is or isn’t, the Holocaust is not and never was theology – it is ideology – and a pretty disgusting one at that.

Bergen-Belsen Camp: The Suppressed Story
By Mark Weber

Fifty years ago, on April 15, 1945, British troops liberated the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp. The anniversary was widely remembered in official ceremonies and in newspaper articles that, as the following essay shows, distort the camp’s true history.

Largely because of the circumstances of its liberation, the relatively unimportant German concentration camp of Bergen-Belsen has become — along with Dachau and Buchenwald — an international symbol of German barbarism.

The British troops who liberated the Belsen camp three weeks before the end of the war were shocked and disgusted by the many unburied corpses and dying inmates they found there. Horrific photos and films of the camp’s emaciated corpses and mortally sick inmates were quickly circulated around the globe. Within weeks the British military occupation newspaper proclaimed: “The story of that greatest of all exhibitions of ‘man’s inhumanity to man’ which was Belsen Concentration Camp is known throughout the world.” (note 1)

Ghastly images recorded by Allied photographers at Belsen in mid-April 1945 and widely reproduced ever since have greatly contributed to the camp’s reputation as a notorious extermination center. In fact, the dead of Bergen-Belsen were, above all, unfortunate victims of war and its turmoil, not deliberate policy. It can even be argued that they were as much victims of Allied as of German measures.

Plan of the Bergen-Belsen camp

The Bergen-Belsen camp was located near Hannover in northwestern Germany on the site of a former army camp for wounded prisoners of war. In 1943 it was established as an internment camp (Aufenthaltslager) for European Jews who were to be exchanged for German citizens held by the Allies.

More than 9,000 Jews with citizenship papers or passports from Latin American countries, entry visas for Palestine, or other documents making them eligible for emigration, arrived in late 1943 and 1944 from Poland, France, Holland and other parts of Europe. During the final months of the war, several groups of these “exchange Jews” were transported from Axis-occupied Europe. German authorities transferred several hundred to neutral Switzerland, and at least one group of 222 Jewish detainees was transferred from Belsen (by way of neutral Turkey) to British-controlled Palestine. /2

Until late 1944 conditions were generally better than in other concentration camps. Marika Frank Abrams, a Jewish woman from Hungary, was transferred from Auschwitz in 1944. Years later she recalled her arrival at Belsen: “… We were each given two blankets and a dish. There was running water and latrines. We were given food that was edible and didn’t have to stand for hours to be counted. The conditions were so superior to Auschwitz we felt we were practically in a sanitarium.” /3

Inmates normally received three meals a day. Coffee and bread were served in the morning and evening, with cheese and sausage as available. The main mid-day meal consisted of one liter of vegetable stew. Families lived together. Otherwise, men and women were housed in separate barracks. /4

Children were also held there. There were some 500 Jewish children in Belsen’s “No. 1 Women’s Camp” section when British forces arrived. /5

During the final months of the war, tens of thousands of Jews were evacuated to Belsen from Auschwitz and other eastern camps threatened by the advancing Soviets. Belsen became severely overcrowded as the number of inmates increased from 15,000 in December 1944 to 42,000 at the beginning of March 1945, and more than 50,000 a month later. /6

Many of these Jewish prisoners had chosen to be evacuated westwards with their German captors rather than remain in eastern camps to await liberation by Soviet forces. /7

So catastrophic had conditions become during the final months of the war that about a third of the prisoners evacuated to Belsen in February and March 1945 perished during the journey and were dead on arrival. /8

As order broke down across Europe during those chaotic final months, regular deliveries of food and medicine to the camp stopped. Foraging trucks were sent to scrounge up whatever supplies of bread, potatoes and turnips were available in nearby towns. /9
Epidemic

Disease was kept under control by routinely disinfecting all new arrivals. But in early February 1945 a large transport of Hungarian Jews was admitted while the disinfection facility was out of order. As a result, typhus broke out and quickly spread beyond control. /10

Commandant Josef Kramer quarantined the camp in an effort to save lives, but SS camp administration headquarters in Berlin insisted that Belsen be kept open to receive still more Jewish evacuees arriving from the East. The death rate soon rose to 400 a day. /11

The worst killer was typhus, but typhoid fever and dysentery also claimed many lives. Aggravating the situation was a policy during the final months of transferring already sick inmates from other camps to Belsen, which was then officially designated a sick or convalescence camp (Krankenlager). The sick women of Auschwitz, for example, were transferred to Belsen in three groups in November-December 1944. /12

When SS chief Heinrich Himmler learned of the typhus outbreak at Bergen-Belsen, he immediately issued an order to all appropriate officials requiring that “all medical means necessary to combat the epidemic should be employed … There can be no question of skimping either with doctors or medical supplies.” However, the general breakdown of order that prevailed on Germany by this time made it impossible to implement the command. /13
‘Belsen Worst’

Violette Fintz, a Jewish woman who had been deported from the island of Rhodes to Auschwitz in mid-1944, and then to Dachau and, finally, in early 1945, to Belsen, later compared conditions in the different camps: /14

Belsen was in the beginning bearable and we had bunks to sleep on, and a small ration of soup and bread. But as the camp got fuller, our group and many others were given a barracks to hold about seven hundred lying on the floor without blankets and without food or anything. It was a pitiful scene as the camp was attacked by lice and most of the people had typhus and cholera … Many people talk about Auschwitz — it was a horrible camp. But Belsen, no words can describe it … From my experience and suffering, Belsen was the worst.

Belsen’s most famous inmate was doubtless Anne Frank, who had been evacuated from Auschwitz in late October 1944. She succumbed to typhus in March 1945, three or four weeks before liberation.

Kramer Reports a ‘Catastrophe’

In a March 1, 1945, letter to Gruppenführer (General) Richard Glücks, head of the SS camp administration agency, Commandant Kramer reported in detail on the catastrophic situation in the Bergen-Belsen, and pleaded for help: /15

If I had sufficient sleeping accommodation at my disposal, then the accommodation of the detainees who have already arrived and of those still to come would appear more possible. In addition to this question a spotted fever and typhus epidemic has now begun, which increases in extent every day. The daily mortality rate, which was still in the region of 60-70 at the beginning of February, has in the meantime attained a daily average of 250-300 and will increase still further in view of the conditions which at present prevail.

Supply. When I took over the camp, winter supplies for 1500 internees had been indented for; some had been received, but the greater part had not been delivered. This failure was due not only to difficulties of transport, but also to the fact that practically nothing is available in this area and all must be brought from outside the area …

For the last four days there has been no delivery [of food] from Hannover owing to interrupted communications, and I shall be compelled, if this state of affairs prevails till the end of the week, to fetch bread also by means of truck from Hannover. The trucks allotted to the local unit are in no way adequate for this work, and I am compelled to ask for at least three to four trucks and five to six trailers. When I once have here a means of towing then I can send out the trailers into the surrounding area … The supply question must, without fail, be cleared up in the next few days. I ask you, Gruppenführer, for an allocation of transport …

State of Health. The incidence of disease is very high here in proportion to the number of detainees. When you interviewed me on Dec. 1, 1944, at Oranienburg, you told me that Bergen-Belsen was to serve as a sick camp for all concentration camps in north Germany. The number of sick has greatly increased, particularly on account of the transports of detainees that have arrived from the East in recent times — these transports have sometimes spent eight or fourteen days in open trucks …

The fight against spotted fever is made extremely difficult by the lack of means of disinfection. Due to constant use, the hot-air delousing machine is now in bad working order and sometimes fails for several days …

A catastrophe is taking place for which no one wishes to assume responsibility … Gruppenführer, I can assure you that from this end everything will be done to overcome the present crisis …

I am now asking you for your assistance as it lies in your power. In addition to the above-mentioned points I need here, before everything, accommodation facilities, beds, blankets, eating utensils — all for about 20,000 internees … I implore your help in overcoming this situation.

Mass grave at Belsen camp, shortly after its liberation by British troops. Photographs such as this are widely reproduced as proof of a German policy of extermination. Contrary to Allied propaganda claims of the time, and Holocaust allegations in recent decades, though, these unfortunate prisoners were victims of typhus and starvation that were indirect consequences of the war – not of any deliberate policy. At least 14,000 Jews died in the camp following the British takeover.

Under such terrible conditions, Kramer did everything in his power to reduce suffering and prevent death among the inmates, even appealing to the hard-pressed German army. “I don’t know what else to do,” he told high-ranking army officers. “I have reached the limit. Masses of people are dying. The drinking water supply has broken down. A trainload of food was destroyed by low-flying [Allied] war planes. Something must be done immediately.” /16

Working together with both Commandant Kramer and chief inmate representative Kuestermeier, Colonel Hanns Schmidt responded by arranging for the local volunteer fire department to provide water. He also saw to it that food supplies were brought to the camp from abandoned rail cars. Schmidt later recalled that Kramer “did not at all impress one as a criminal type. He acted like an upright and rather honorable man. Neither did he strike me as someone with a guilty conscience. He worked with great dedication to improve conditions in the camp. For example, he rounded up horse drawn vehicles to bring food to the camp from rail cars that had been shot up.” /17

“I was swamped,” Kramer later explained to incredulous British military interrogators: /18

The camp was not really inefficient before you [British and American forces] crossed the Rhine. There was running water, regular meals of a kind — I had to accept what food I was given for the camp and distribute it the best way I could. But then they suddenly began to send me trainloads of new prisoners from all over Germany. It was impossible to cope with them. I appealed for more staff, more food. I was told that this was impossible. I had to carry on with what I had.

Then as a last straw the Allies bombed the electric plant that pumped our water. Loads of food were unable to reach the camp because of the Allied fighters. Then things really got out of hand. During the last six weeks I have been helpless. I did not even have sufficient staff to bury the dead, let alone segregate the sick … I tried to get medicines and food for the prisoners and I failed. I was swamped. I may have been hated, but I was doing my duty.

Kramer’s clear conscience is also suggested by the fact that he made no effort to save his life by fleeing, but instead calmly awaited the approaching British forces, naively confident of decent treatment. “When Belsen Camp was eventually taken over by the Allies,” he later stated, “I was quite satisfied that I had done all I possibly could under the circumstances to remedy the conditions in the camp.” /19
Negotiated Transfer

As British forces approached Bergen-Belsen, German authorities sought to turn over the camp to the British so that it would not become a combat zone. After some negotiation, it was peacefully transferred, with an agreement that “both British and German troops will make every effort to avoid battle in the area.” /20

A revealing account of the circumstances under which the British took control appeared in a 1945 issue of The Journal of the American Medical Association: /21

By negotiations between British and German officers, British troops took over from the SS and the Wehrmacht the task of guarding the vast concentration camp at Belsen, a few miles northwest of Celle, which contains 60,000 prisoners, many of them political. This has been done because typhus is rampant in the camp and it is vital that no prisoners be released until the infection is checked. The advancing British agreed to refrain from bombing or shelling the area of the camp, and the Germans agreed to leave behind an armed guard which would be allowed to return to their own lines a week after the British arrival.

The story of the negotiations is curious. Two German officers presented themselves before the British outposts and explained that there were 9,000 sick in the camp and that all sanitation had failed. They proposed that the British should occupy the camp at once, as the responsibility was international in the interests of health. In return for the delay caused by the truce the Germans offered to surrender intact the bridges over the river Aller. After brief consideration the British senior officer rejected the German proposals, saying it was necessary that the British should occupy an area of ten kilometers round the camp in order to be sure of keeping their troops and lines of communication away from the disease. The British eventually took over the camp.
Brutal Mistreatment

On April 15, 1945, Belsen’s commanders turned over the camp to British troops, who lost no time mistreating the SS camp personnel. The Germans were beaten with rifle butts, kicked, and stabbed with bayonets. Most were shot or worked to death. /22

British journalist Alan Moorehead described the treatment of some of the camp personnel shortly after the takeover: /23

As we approached the cells of the SS guards, the [British] sergeant’s language become ferocious. “We had had an interrogation this morning,” the captain said. ‘I’m afraid they are not a pretty sight.’ … The sergeant unbolted the first door and … strode into the cell, jabbing a metal spike in front of him. “Get up,” he shouted. “Get up. Get up, you dirty bastards.” There were half a dozen men lying or half lying on the floor. One or two were able to pull themselves erect at once. The man nearest me, his shirt and face spattered with blood, made two attempts before he got on to his knees and then gradually on to his feet. He stood with his arms stretched out in front of him, trembling violently.

“Come on. Get up,” the sergeant shouted [in the next cell]. The man was lying in his blood on the floor, a massive figure with a heavy head and bedraggled beard … “Why don’t you kill me?” he whispered. “Why don’t you kill me? I can’t stand it any more.” The same phrases dribbled out of his lips over and over again. “He’s been saying that all morning, the dirty bastard,” the sergeant said.

Josef Kramer in British captivity. After a military trial, the former Bergen-Belsen Commandant was put to death.

Commandant Kramer, who was vilified in the British and American press as “The Beast of Belsen” and “The Monster of Belsen,” was put on trial and then executed, along with chief physician Dr. Fritz Klein and other camp officials. At his trial, Kramer’s defense attorney, Major T.C.M. Winwood, predicted: “When the curtain finally rings down on this stage Josef Kramer will, in my submission, stand forth not as ‘The Beast of Belsen’ but as ‘The Scapegoat of Belsen’.” /24

In an “act of revenge,” the British liberators expelled the residents of the nearby town of Bergen, and then permitted camp inmates to loot the houses and buildings. Much of the town was also set on fire. /25

Postwar Deaths

There were some 55,000 to 60,000 prisoners in Bergen-Belsen when the British took control of the camp. The new administrators proved no more capable of mastering the chaos than the Germans had been, and some 14,000 Jewish inmates died at Belsen in the months following the British takeover. /26

Although still occasionally referred to as an “extermination camp” or “mass murder” center, the truth about Bergen-Belsen has been quietly acknowledged by scholars. /27 In his 1978 survey of German history, University of Erlangen professor Helmut Diwald wrote of /28

… The notorious Bergen-Belsen concentration camp where 50,000 inmates were supposedly murdered. Actually, about 7,000 inmates died during the period when the camp existed, from 1943 to 1945. Most of them died in the final months of the war as a result of disease and malnutrition — consequences of the bombings that had completely disrupted normal deliveries of medical supplies and food. The British commander who took control of the camp after the capitulation testified that crimes on a large scale had not taken place at Bergen-Belsen.

Martin Broszat, Director of the Institute for Contemporary History in Munich, wrote in 1976: /29

… In Bergen-Belsen, for example, thousands of corpses of Jewish prisoners were found by British soldiers on the day of liberation, which gave the impression that this was one of the notorious extermination camps. Actually, many Jews in Bergen-Belsen as well as in the satellite camps of Dachau died in the last weeks before the end of the war as a result of the quickly improvised retransfers and evacuations of Jewish workers from the still existing ghettos, work camps and concentration camps in the East (Auschwitz) …

Dr. Russell Barton, an English physician who spent a month in Bergen-Belsen after the war with the British Army, has also explained the reasons for the catastrophic conditions found there: /30

Most people attributed the conditions of the inmates to deliberate intention on the part of the Germans in general and the camp administrators in particular. Inmates were eager to cite examples of brutality and neglect, and visiting journalists from different countries interpreted the situation according to the needs of propaganda at home.

For example, one newspaper emphasized the wickedness of the “German masters” by remarking that some of the 10,000 unburied dead were naked. In fact, when the dead were taken from a hut and left in the open for burial, other prisoners would take their clothing from them …

German medical officers told me that it had been increasingly difficult to transport food to the camp for some months. Anything that moved on the autobahns was likely to be bombed …

I was surprised to find records, going back for two or three years, of large quantities of food cooked daily for distribution. I became convinced, contrary to popular opinion, that there had never been a policy of deliberate starvation. This was confirmed by the large numbers of well-fed inmates. Why then were so many people suffering from malnutrition?… The major reasons for the state of Belsen were disease, gross overcrowding by central authority, lack of law and order within the huts, and inadequate supplies of food, water and drugs.

In trying to assess the causes of the conditions found in Belsen one must be alerted to the tremendous visual display, ripe for purposes of propaganda, that masses of starved corpses presented.
Gas Chamber Myths

Some former inmates and a few historians have claimed that Jews were put to death in gas chambers at Bergen-Belsen. For example, an “authoritative” work published shortly after the end of the war, A History of World War II, informed readers: “In Belsen, [Commandant] Kramer kept an orchestra to play him Viennese music while he watched children torn from their mothers to be burned alive. Gas chambers disposed of thousands of persons daily.” /31

A protest meeting in the Bergen-Belsen camp, September 1947.

For five years following the end of the war, British authorities maintained the camp as a “Displaced Persons” center. During this period it flourished as a major black market center. At this pro-Zionist gathering of 4,000 Jews, camp leader Joseph Rosensaft speaks against British policy in Palestine.

In Jews, God and History, Jewish historian Max Dimont wrote of gassings at Bergen-Belsen. /32 A semi-official work published in Poland in 1981 claimed that women and babies were “put to death in gas chambers” at Belsen. /33

In 1945 the Associated Press news agency reported: /34

In Lueneburg, Germany, a Jewish physician, testifying at the trial of 45 men and women for war crimes at the Belsen and Oswiecim [Auschwitz] concentration camps, said that 80,000 Jews, representing the entire ghetto of Lodz, Poland, had been gassed or burned to death in one night at the Belsen camp.

Five decades after the camp’s liberation, British army Captain Robert Daniell recalled seeing “the gas chambers” there. /35

Years after the war, Robert Spitz, a Hungarian Jew, remembered taking a shower at Belsen in February 1945: “… It was delightful. What I didn’t know then was that there were other showers in the same building where gas came out instead of water.” /36

Another former inmate, Moshe Peer, recalled a miraculous escape from death as an eleven-year-old in the camp. In a 1993 interview with a Canadian newspaper, the French-born Peer claimed that he “was sent to the [Belsen] camp gas chamber at least six times.” The newspaper account went on to relate: “Each time he survived, watching with horror as many of the women and children gassed with him collapsed and died. To this day, Peer doesn’t know how he was able to survive.” In an effort to explain the miracle, Peer mused: “Maybe children resist better, I don’t know.” (Although Peer claimed that “Bergen-Belsen was worse than Auschwitz,” he acknowledged that he and his younger brother and sister, who were deported to the camp in 1944, all somehow survived internment there.) /37

Such gas chamber tales are entirely fanciful. As early as 1960, historian Martin Broszat had publicly repudiated the Belsen gassing story. These days no reputable scholar supports it. /38
Exaggerated Death Estimates

Estimates of the number of people who died in Bergen-Belsen have ranged widely over the years. Many have been irresponsible exaggerations. Typical is a 1985 York Daily News report, which told readers that “probably 100,000 died at Bergen-Belsen.” /39 An official German government publication issued in 1990 declared that “more than 50,000 people had been murdered” in the Belsen camp under German control, and “an additional 13,000 died in the first weeks after liberation.” /40

Closer to the truth is the Encyclopaedia Judaica, which maintains that 37,000 perished in the camp before the British takeover, and another 14,000 afterwards. /41

Whatever the actual number of dead, Belsen’s victims were not “murdered,” and the camp was not an “extermination” center.
Black Market Center

From 1945 until 1950, when it was finally shut down, the British maintained Belsen as a camp for displaced European Jews. During this period it achieved new notoriety as a major European black market center. The “uncrowned king” of Belsen’s 10,000 Jews was Yossl (Josef) Rosensaft, who amassed tremendous profits from the illegal trading. Rosensaft had been interned in various camps, including Auschwitz, before arriving in Belsen in early April 1945. /42

British Lieutenant General Sir Frederick Morgan, chief of “displaced persons” operations in postwar Germany for the United Nations relief organization UNRRA recalled in his memoir that /43 under Zionist auspices there had been organized at Belsen a vast illegitimate trading organization with worldwide ramifications and dealing in a wide range of goods, principally precious metals and stones. A money market dealt with a wide range of currencies. Goods were being imported in cryptically marked containers consigned in UNRRA shipments to Jewish voluntary agencies …
Legacy

A kind of memorial center now draws many tourists annually to the camp site. Not surprisingly, Bergen’s 13,000 residents are not very pleased with their town’s infamous reputation. Citizens report being called “murderers” during visits to foreign countries. /44

In striking contrast to the widely-accepted image of Belsen, which is essentially a product of hateful wartime propaganda, is the suppressed, albeit grim, historical reality. In truth, the Bergen-Belsen story may be regarded as the Holocaust story in miniature.

 Notes

Walter Laqueur, The Terrible Secret: Suppression of the Truth about Hitler’s ‘Final Solution’ (Boston: Little Brown, 1980), p. 1.
Testimony of Commandant Kramer in: Raymond Phillips, ed., Trial of Josef Kramer and Forty-Four Others (The Belsen Trial) (London: William Hodge, 1949), p. 160; “Bergen-Belsen,” Encyclopaedia Judaica (New York and Jerusalem: Macmillan and Keter, 1971), Vol. 4, p. 610. According to this source, one group of 136 of these “exchange Jews” was deported from Belsen during the war to neutral Switzerland, and another group of 222 was transferred to Palestine.; According to an Israeli newspaper report, a group of 222 “exchange” Jews reportedly left Bergen-Belsen on June 29, 1944, and, by way of Istanbul, arrived in Palestine on July 10. (Israel Nachrichten, quoted in: D. National-Zeitung, Munich, Sept. 23, 1994, p. 5)
Sylvia Rothchild, ed., Voices from the Holocaust (New York: NAL, 1981), p. 190.
Josef Kramer statement (1945) in: R. Phillips, Trial of Josef Kramer and Forty-Four Others, pp. 731-737. This is also in: Arthur Butz, The Hoax of the Twentieth Century (Newport Beach: Institute for Historical Review, 1993), pp. 272-274.
R. Phillips, Trial of Josef Kramer and Forty-Four Others, pp. 19, 32, 33; Roman Hrabar, with Zofia Tokarz and J. E. Wilczur, The Fate of Polish Children During the Last War (Warsaw: Interpress, 1981), p. 76.
Encyclopaedia Judaica, Vol. 4, p. 610; Gedenkbuch: Opfer der Verfolgung der Juden unter der nationsozialistischen Gewaltherrschaft (Koblenz: Bundesarchiv, 1986; 2 vols.), pp. 1761-1762.
Testimony of Dr. Russell Barton, Feb. 7, 1985, in the first “Holocaust” trial of Ernst Zündel. Official trial transcript, pp. 2916-2917; See also Barton’s testimony during the second, 1988 Zündel trial in: Barbara Kulaszka, ed., Did Six Million Really Die? (Toronto: Samisdat, 1992), p. 175, and, Robert Lenski, The Holocaust on Trial: The Case of Ernst Zündel (Decatur, Ala.: Reporter Press, 1990), p. 159.
Testimony of Commandant Kramer in: R. Phillips, Trial of Josef Kramer and Forty-Four Others, p. 162.
Josef Kramer statement (1945) in: R. Phillips, ed., Trial of Josef Kramer and Forty-Four Others, pp. 731-737. Also in: A. Butz, The Hoax of the Twentieth Century, p. 274.
Derrick Sington, Belsen Uncovered (London: 1946), pp. 117-118. Quoted in: A. Butz, The Hoax of the Twentieth Century, pp. 34-35; Gerald Reitlinger, The Final Solution (London: Sphere Books, pb., 1971), p. 504 (note).
R. Phillips, ed., Trial of Josef Kramer and Forty-Four Others, pp. 152-153, 166-167, 734, 736; Tom Bower,Blind Eye to Murder (London: Granada, 1983), p. 224; Dr. Ernst von Briesen, “Was passierte in Bergen-Belsen wirklich?,” D. National-Zeitung (Munich), Jan. 13, 1984, pp. 4, 5, 8.
G.Reitlinger, The Final Solution, p. 497 (and 638, n. 23).
Andre Biss, A Million Jews to Save (New York: A.S. Barnes, 1975), pp. 242, 249-250; Felix Kersten, The Kersten Memoirs, 1940-1945 (New York: Macmillan, 1957), p. 276.
Martin Gilbert, The Holocaust (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1986), pp. 722, 785-786.
R. Phillips, ed., Trial of Josef Kramer and Forty-Four Others, pp. 163-166.
Signed report by retired Colonel (Oberst a.D.) Hanns Schmidt to Kurt Mehner and Lt. Colonel Bechtold, Braunschweig, March 3, 1981. Photocopy in author’s possession.
Signed report by Hanns Schmidt to Kurt Mehner and Lt. Colonel Bechtold, March 3, 1981. Photocopy in author’s possession.
Essay by Alan Moorehead, “Belsen,” in: Cyril Connolly, ed., The Golden Horizon (London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1953), pp. 109-110.
Josef Kramer statement (1945) in: R. Phillips, ed., Trial of Josef Kramer and Forty-Four Others, p. 737. Also quoted in: A. Butz, Hoax, p. 275; Essay by Alan Moorehead, “Belsen,” in: Cyril Connolly, ed., The Golden Horizon, pp. 109-110; Dr. Russell Barton, “Belsen,” History of the Second World War (Editor: Barrie Pitt, Copyright BPC publications, 1966), Part 109, 1975, p. 3025.
R. Phillips, ed., Trial of Josef Kramer and Forty-Four Others, pp. 396-397.
“Typhus Causes a Truce,” The Journal of the American Medical Association (Chicago), May 19, 1945, p. 220.
Leonard O. Mosley, Report from Germany (1945). Quoted in: Montgomery Belgion, Victor’s Justice (Regnery, 1949), p. 80 (and p. 81); Time magazine, April 29, 1985, p. 21; See also essay by A. Moorehead, “Belsen,” in: Cyril Connolly, ed., The Golden Horizon (London: 1953), pp. 105-106.
Essay by A. Moorehead, “Belsen,” in: Cyril Connolly, ed., The Golden Horizon, pp. 105-106.
R. Phillips, ed., Trial of Josef Kramer and Forty-Four Others, p. 156.
“Bergen-Belsen,” Der Spiegel (Hamburg), Nr. 30, 1985, pp. 71, 72.
“Holocaust,” Encyclopaedia Judaica, Vol. 8, p. 859; M. Gilbert, The Holocaust (1986), pp. 793-795; See also: R. Phillips, ed., Trial of Josef Kramer and Forty-Four Others, pp. 20, 46-47; According to a 1992 Associated Press report, more than 60,000 prisoners were held in Belsen camp when it was liberated. Then, “in the first five days of liberation, 14,000 prisoners died and another 14,000 perished in the following weeks.” Graham Heathcote, AP from Tostock, England, “2 hours changed me for the rest of my life,” Orlando Sentinel (Florida), Dec. 20, 1992, p. A 29, and, “Journey into hell,” The Spokesman-Review (Spokane, Washington), Dec. 20, 1992.
Time magazine, April 29, 1985, p. 21, referred to Belsen as a camp created for the “extermination” of “the Jewish people.”
Helmut Diwald, Geschichte der Deutschen (Frankfurt: Propyläen, first ed., 1978), pp. 164-165.
M. Broszat, “Zur Kritik der Publizistik des antisemitischen Rechtsextremismus,” Supplement B 19/76 of May 8, 1976, to the weekly newspaper Das Parlament (Bonn), p. 6. Revised from issue No. 2, 1976, of theVierteljahrshefte für Zeitgeschichte (Munich).
Dr. R. Barton, “Belsen,” History of the Second World War, Part 109, 1975, pp. 3025-3029; Barton confirmed this evaluation in testimony given in the 1985 and 1988 Toronto trials of German-Canadian publisher Ernst Zündel. On Barton’s testimony in the first, 1985 trial, see: “View of Belsen was propaganda, trial told,” The Globe and Mail(Toronto), Feb. 8, 1985, pp. M1, M5, and, “Disease killed Nazis’ prisoners, MD says,” Toronto Star, Feb. 8, 1985, p. A2; On Barton’s testimony in the second, 1988 Zündel trial, see: Barbara Kulaszka, ed., Did Six Million Really Die?, pp. 175-180, and, R. Lenski, The Holocaust on Trial (1990), pp. 157-160; Among his other positions after the war, Barton was superintendent and consultant psychiatrist at Severalls Hospital (Essex, England), and director of the Rochester Psychiatric Center (New York).
Francis Trevelyan Miller, Litt.D., LLD, A History of World War II (Philadelphia: John C. Winston Co., 1945), p. 868.
M. Dimont, Jews, God and History (New York: Signet/NAL, pb., 1962?), p. 383.
R. Hrabar, et al, The Fate of Polish Children During the Last War (Warsaw: 1981), p. 76.
The Associated Press News Annual: 1945, p. 404.
M. Holland, “The horrors of Belsen,” Sunday Herald Sun (Melbourne, Australia), Jan. 22, 1995, p. 93; M. Holland, “Man who uncovered the horror of Belsen,” Sunday Times (Perth, W. Australia), Feb. 5, 1995, p. 2.
S. Rothchild, ed., Voices From the Holocaust, p. 197.
K. Seidman, “Surviving the horror,” The Gazette (Montreal, Canada), August 5, 1993. Facsimile reprint in: The Journal of Historical Review, Nov.-Dec. 1993, p. 24.
Die Zeit (Hamburg), August 19, 1960, p. 16. (U.S. edition: August 26, 1960.) Facsimile and translation in The Journal of Historical Review, May-June 1993, p. 12.
“Bergen-Belsen,” Daily News (New York), April 20, 1985, p. 3.
“Ceremony Recalls Victims of Bergen-Belsen,” The Week in Germany (New York: German Information Center), April 27, 1990, p. 6; A figure of 50,000 is also given in Time magazine, April 29, 1985, p. 21; According to a stone memorial at the Belsen camp site, 30,000 Jews were “exterminated” there; A semi-official Polish account published in 1980 reported 48,000 Belsen “victims.” Czeslaw Pilichowski, No Time Limit for These Crimes (Warsaw: Interpress, 1980), pp. 154-155.
“Bergen-Belsen,” Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971), vol. 4, pp. 610-612; Colonel Schmidt, the German officer who worked to alleviate conditions in Belsen during the final weeks and also arranged for the camp’s surrender to the British, estimated that “altogether about 8,000 people” died in the camp. (This figure may, however, only include victims of the final chaotic weeks under German control.) Source: Signed report by Oberst a.D. Hanns Schmidt to Kurt Mehner and Lt. Colonel Bechtold, Braunschweig, March 3, 1981. (Cited above.) Photocopy in author’s possession.
L. Dawidowicz, “Belsen Remembered,” Commentary (New York: American Jewish Comm.), March 1966, pp. 84, 85; D. National-Zeitung (Munich), March 21, 1986, p. 4; M. Gilbert, The Holocaust, pp. 690, 793.
F. Morgan, Peace and War (London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1961), p. 259.
“Bergen-Belsen,” Der Spiegel, Nr. 30, 1985, pp. 71, 72.

Albert Pike: Lawyer, Brigadier General Mason & Spiritual Leader of the South

Despite my great fortune in education and work to have worked and studied under some very great men, including the late Harvard professors Gordon Randolph Willey and Calvert Watkins, as well as the very much alive Federal Judges Stephen Reinhardt, Michael W. McConnell, and Kenneth L. Ryskamp, no man ever influenced my mind and intellectual growth more than my grandfather, Alphonse Bernhard Meyer, who died when I was not quite 20, on the Monday before Mardi Gras, on February 18, 1980.  

Among my grandfather’s most treasured possessions were an autographed set of the works of Albert Pike inherited from his own father Herbert Bernhard Meyer.  Another member of the Meyer family, Elard Hugo Meyer had written extensively on comparative mythology, in particular famous for preparing and updating the Fourth Edition of Jacob Grimm’s Deustsche Mythologie and later for his own magna opera Indogermanische Mythen, Die Eddische Kosmogonie, Die Mythologie der Germanen.  My grandfather himself, although he had formally studied only biology and chemistry, leading to his lifetime commitment to the greater health, safety, and technology of the United States Armed Forces, was a great student of comparative religion and literature himself, keeping shelves of  heavily worn books of Arabic, Egyptian, Gnostic, Heretical (Eastern) Christian, Persian, Sufi, Zoroastrian, Vedic, and Hindic mysticism and literature.  

But my grandfather explained his interests by repeatedly asserting that the study of comparative religion was only the road back to understanding of our own lives, our own truths, and above-all the meaning of death and of our lives in the hereafter, and he connected all of these to doing good works and making contributions to the lives of the living on earth.  In this my grandfather thought that no one had ever contributed more to his own understanding than the writings of Albert Pike.  My grandfather had achieved 33rd degree masonry at the early age of 30, in the same year he had chaired the first $1,000,000 fundraising campaign in the history the Dallas YMCA (his last campaign, in 1979, netted the Y $10,000,000).  

Like Elard Hugo Meyer, Pike had also written on Indo-Aryan Deities and Worship as Contained in the Rig-Veda as well as the Lectures of the Arya and above all, his multiple editions of Morals and Dogma of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite Freemasonry and Morals and Dogma of the First Three Degrees of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite Freemasonry in addition to The Meaning of Masonry and Points within the Circle.  Pike’s and Meyer’s writings coincided in bringing together the concepts of Ancient Learning and Language for Modern Morality and Virtue.   Albert Pike was often said to be one of the founding commanders of the Ku Klux Klan and its “Chief Judicial Officer” just as Hugo Meyer was said to be one of the spiritual forefathers of the Artaman League, the writings of Herman Wirth, and Himmler’s Ahnenerbe.  Others say that Albert Pike was somehow connected to the development of international banking and the Federal Reserve, but this appears to be related only to some of his extremely early writings as an Arkansas Lawyer and Court officer.

Although Albert Pike was born in Boston, lived in New Orleans and New York City, and died and was buried in Washington, where he is the only Confederate General commemorated by a statue, Pike spent much of his life in Arkansas, where he is remembered as the founder of the first legal reports (recording the deliberations and decisions of judges to establish precedent and common law) and the first form books to guide practice in this state known to so many only as the gap along I-40 & I-30 between Tennessee and Arkansas, connected by the lives and military-political careers of both Governor-General-President-Governor Sam Houston and Representative & legendary Alamo Hero Davy Crockett, among so many others.

Albert Pike (1809–1891)
Albert Pike was a lawyer who played a major role in the development of the early courts of Arkansas and played an active role in the state’s politics prior to the Civil War. He also was a central figure in the development of Masonry in the state and later became a national leader of that organization. During the Civil War, he commanded the Confederacy’s Indian Territory, raising troops there and exercising field command in one battle. He also was a talented poet and writer.

Albert Pike was born in Boston, Massachusetts, on December 29, 1809. He was one of the six children of Benjamin Pike, a cobbler, and Sarah Andrews. He attended public schools in Byfield, Newburyport, and Framingham, Massachusetts. His received an education that provided him with a background in classical and contemporary literature and in Hebrew, Latin, and Greek. He passed the examination required for entry into Harvard when he was sixteen. He was unable to pay the tuition at Harvard, however, and began to teach, working at schools in Newburyport and nearby Gloucester and Fairhaven.

He began to write poetry as a young man, which he continued to do for the rest of his life. When he was twenty-three, he published his first poem, “Hymns to the Gods.” Subsequent poems appeared in contemporary literary journals such asBlackwood’s Edinburgh Magazine and local newspapers. His first collection of poetry, Prose Sketches and Poems Written in the Western Country, appeared in 1834. He later gathered many of his poems and republished them in Hymns to the Gods and Other Poems (1872). After his death these appeared again in Gen. Albert Pike’s Poems (1900) and Lyrics and Love Songs(1916).

Pike left Massachusetts for Santa Fe, in what was then Mexico, in 1831, one of many at the time attracted to the developing West. From Santa Fe, he joined in an expedition into the lands around the headwaters of the Arkansas and Red rivers. Somewhere along the route, he left the expedition and walked to Fort Smith (Sebastian County). He taught there in rural schools for a short time, but his literary skills early involved him in Arkansas politics. In 1833, he published in local newspapers letters in support of Robert Crittenden’s candidacy for territorial delegate to Congress. The anonymous letters, signed “Casca” after one of the Roman politicians who assassinated Julius Caesar, were considered very persuasive and secured for him a statewide reputation as a writer. They also attracted the attention of Charles Bertrand, owner of the Whig Party’s Arkansas Advocate, who invited Pike to Little Rock (Pulaski County) to work as the paper’s editor. Pike accepted the job and moved to the capital city. While working for the Advocate, Pike published a series of stories and poems about his adventures in New Mexico, the material later published in his Prose Stories and Poems Written in the Western Country.

In addition to editing the newspaper, Pike secured additional work in Little Rock as a clerk in the legislature. He married Mary Ann Hamilton on October 10, 1834. The couple had six children. Hamilton brought to the marriage considerable financial resources, and she helped Pike purchase an interest in the Advocate from Charles Bertram in 1834. The next year, he became its sole proprietor. Pike studied law while editing the newspaper, ultimately passing the Arkansas Bar exam in either 1836 or 1837. In the latter year, he sold the newspaper and devoted his time to the law. He demonstrated considerable legal prowess early and represented clients in courts at every level, including the United States Supreme Court, which he received permission to practice before in 1849.

Pike developed a lucrative law practice, and his clients included many of the tribes in Indian Territory. Among his clients at this time were the Creek (Muscogee) and Choctaw, whom he represented in a case against the U.S. government that secured payment for lands taken in the Treaty of Fort Jackson in 1814. Pike learned several Native American dialects while working as their attorney.

From 1836 to 1844, Pike was the first reporter of the Arkansas Supreme Court, charged with writing notes on the relevant points in court decisions, then publishing and indexing the court’s opinions. In 1842, he published the Arkansas Form Book, a tool for lawyers providing models for the different kinds of motions to be filed in the state’s courts. His reputation as an attorney also secured him the appointment of receiver for the failed Arkansas State Bank in 1840. As receiver, he attempted to collect the debts owed to that institution. At the same time, the fees he received for this work were lucrative and secured his fortune.

An ambitious public figure, Pike joined others in 1845 in supporting actions against Mexico, what became the Mexican War. He helped raise the Little Rock Guards, a company incorporated into the Arkansas cavalry regiment of Colonel Archibald Yell, and served as its captain. Pike concluded early on that the senior officers of his regiment were incompetent, and he shared his observations with the people back in Arkansas through letters to the newspapers. Following the Battle of Buena Vista, he leveled particularly harsh criticism against Lieutenant Colonel John Selden Roane. After the publication of a particularly vitriolic letter by Pike in the Arkansas Gazette, Roane demanded that Pike apologize or “give him satisfaction.” Pike refused to apologize, and the two fought a duel near Fort Smith on a sand bank in the Arkansas River. In the exchange of fire, neither hit his antagonist, and the two were persuaded to halt the duel, with honor satisfied.

Returning from Mexico, Pike reestablished his law practice. He promoted the construction of a transcontinental railroad from New Orleans to the Pacific coast, writing numerous newspaper essays urging support for this project. He moved to New Orleans in 1853 to further his railroad activities, although he also continued to practice law. He translated French legal volumes into English while preparing to pass the local bar exam for Louisiana. Ultimately, he successfully obtained a charter from the Louisiana legislature for one of his railroad projects. He returned to Little Rock in 1857.

In the years immediately following the Mexican War, Pike’s concern with the developing sectional crisis brought on by the issue of slavery became apparent. He had long been a Whig, but the Whig Party repeatedly refused to address the slavery issue. That failure and Pike’s own anti-Catholicism led him to join the Know-Nothing Party upon its creation. In 1856, he attended the new party’s national convention, but he found it equally reluctant to adopt a strong pro-slavery platform. He joined other Southern delegates in walking out of the convention. Pike believed in the idea of state’s rights and considered secession constitutional. He philosophically supported secession, demonstrating his position in 1861 when he published a pamphlet titled State or Province, Bond or Free?

In 1861, the Arkansas state convention named Pike its commissioner to Indian Territory and authorized him to negotiate treaties with the various tribes. As a result of his experience there, the Confederate War Department appointed him a brigadier general in the Confederate army in August 1861 and assigned him to the Department of the Indian Territory. Pike assisted the tribes that supported the Confederacy in raising regiments. He believed that these units would be critical to protecting the territory from Union incursions, but his belief that the Indian units should be kept in Indian Territory brought him into early conflict with his superiors. In the spring of 1862, General Earl Van Dorn ordered him to bring his 2,500 Indian troops into northwestern Arkansas. Despite his opposition to the move, Pike obeyed, and his Indian force of about 900 men joined Confederate forces in northwest Arkansas. On March 7–8, 1862, they participated in the Battle of Pea Ridge (a.k.a. Elkhorn Tavern), led by Pike. Pike proved a poor leader, and he failed to keep his force engaged with the enemy or in check. Charges circulated widely that the men had stopped their advance to take scalps. After the battle, Pike and his men returned to Indian Territory.

Opposition to Confederate policy over Indian Territory would continue to be a source of conflict between Pike and his superiors. Unhappy with Pike, in the summer of 1862, General Thomas C. Hindman, commander of Confederate forces in Arkansas, attempted to extend his authority over the territory. Pike responded by issuing a circular that refused to surrender control and charged Hindman with trying to replace constitutional government with despotism. Ultimately, the dispute between the two went to Confederate authorities at Richmond. The authorities decided in favor of Hindman and reprimanded Pike. On July 12, Pike resigned from his position in protest. With his resignation, Pike retired to Greasy Cove (Montgomery County). He was appointed as a judge of the state Supreme Court in 1864, but little is known of his activities on the court.

At the end of the Civil War, Pike moved to New York City, then for a short time to Canada. After receiving an amnesty from President Andrew Johnson on August 30, 1865, he returned for a time to Arkansas and resumed the practice of law. In 1867, he moved to Memphis, Tennessee, and entered a new law partnership with General Charles W. Adams. He also edited theMemphis Appeal. He may have become involved in the organization of the Ku Klux Klan at this time, although this is not certain. He moved to Washington DC in 1870. There, he engaged for a time in politics, editing The Patriot, a Democraticnewspaper, from 1868 to 1870. He also practiced law in partnership with Robert W. Johnson, former U.S. senator, until 1880. Although less interested in Arkansas affairs, one of his last major roles in the state would be his support to the Grant administration of Elisha Baxter’s claims for the governorship in 1874.

After he ceased practicing law, Pike’s real interest was the Masonic Lodge. He had become a Mason in 1850 and participated in the creation of the Masonic St. Johns’ College in Little Rock that same year. In 1851, he helped to form the Grand Chapter of Arkansas and was its Grand High Priest from 1853 to 1854. In 1853, he also associated with the Scottish Rite of Masons and rose rapidly in the organization. In 1859, he was elected grand commander of the Supreme Council, Southern Jurisdiction of the United States, the administrative district for all parts of the country except for the fifteen states east of the Mississippi River and north of the Ohio, and held that post until his death. After the war, he devoted much of his time to rewriting the rituals of the Scottish Rite Masons. For years, his Morals and Dogma (1871), still in print, was distributed to members of the Rite. Over his career, he published numerous other works on the order, including Meaning of Masonry, Book of the Words, and The Point Within the Circle. As he aged, he also became interested in spiritualism, particularly Indian thought, and its relationship to Masonry. Late in life, he learned Sanskrit and translated various literary works written in that language. As a result of his work in this area, he published Indo-Aryan Deities and Worship as Contained in the Rig-Veda.

Pike died at the Scottish Rite Temple in Washington DC on April 2, 1891. He was buried in Oak Hill Cemetery there. On December 29, 1944, the anniversary of his birth, his body was removed from Oak Hill Cemetery and placed in a crypt in the temple.

Pike was much honored after his death. His Masonic brothers erected a statute to him in 1901 in Washington DC, making him the only former Confederate general to have a monument there. Authorities also named the first highway between Hot Springs (Garland County) and Colorado Springs, Colorado, the Albert Pike Highway. The Albert Pike Memorial Temple in Little Rock bears his name, and his Little Rock home remains standing. After renovation, the home opened as the Arkansas Arts Center’s Decorative Arts Museum in March 1985. In 2004, it became the Arts Center Community Gallery, a multi-purpose gallery in which local and regional art is shown.

For additional information:
Albert Pike Letters and Documents. Butler Center for Arkansas Studies. Central Arkansas Library System, Little Rock, Arkansas.

Allsopp, Frederick William. Albert Pike: A Biography. Little Rock: Parke-Harper, 1928.

Baker, Virgil L. “Albert Pike: Citizen Speechmaker of Arkansas.” Arkansas Historical Quarterly 10 (Summer 1951): 138–156.

Brown, Walter L. A Life of Albert Pike. Fayetteville: University of Arkansas Press, 1997.Duncan, Robert Lipscomb. Reluctant General: The Life and Times of Albert Pike. New York: Dutton, 1961.

Keller, Mark, and Thomas A. Besler Jr. “Albert Pike’s Contributions to the Spirit of the Times, Including His ‘Letter from the Far, Far West’.” Arkansas Historical Quarterly 37 (Winter 1978): 318–353.

Carl H. Moneyhon
University of Arkansas at Little Rock

This entry, originally published in Arkansas Biography: A Collection of Notable Lives, appears in the Encyclopedia of Arkansas History & Culture in an altered form. Arkansas Biography is available from the University of Arkansas Press.

Related Butler Center Lesson Plans:
Arkansas Civil War Drama (Grades 7-12)Arkansas Poetry Connection (Grades 7-12)Who’s Who in Arkansas (Grades 5-8)Last Updated 8/2/2012

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in the late 19th Century and his interests were passed on to his American cousins.

Griechische Insel will sich Österreich Anschließen—“Beautiful Greek Ikaria seeks union (Anschluss) with Beautiful German Austria?” I completely favor this move…..Ikaria needs the economic stability, and the Austrian Navy hasn’t had a seaport since 1919….

I think this is clearly the best news out of Greece in a very long time.  Austria, after all, defended Europe from the Turks after the fall of Constantinople to the Turks, from 1453-1700 anyhow.  The idea of a Greek-Island seeking Anschluss with Austria for some reason reminds me of the wonderful old historical (former Heinrich Schiemann hangout) Hotel Belle Hélène in Mikinis (Mikinis is the modern Greek spelling for the town by Ancient Homeric Mycenae, hometown of Agamemnon) in the northeastern Peloponnesian Peninsula in Greece. In the 1990s the owners still proudly (and publicly) displayed and showed everyone their historic registry so that you could choose to stay in Hermann Goering’s, Joseph Goebbels’, Heinrich Himmler’s, or Alfred Rosenberg’s suites, among several other 1930s “glitterati” among the “Best and Brightest of the Big Bad Bully Boys from Berlin”—Der Führer AH himself apparently never visited SE Europe at all.

The first time we went there together, in 1990, my mother (who was the one who first called the former clientele “The Best & Brightest Big Bully Boys” in her strong southern drawl—surprising to some for a woman who studied and lived most of her life outside the deep south proper) choose the Himmler suite (it larger) and Elena and I chose Alfred Rosenberg’s quarters on purely philosophical grounds….it had a better view…. The last time I visited, in Y2K, I stayed in Goering’s old room.

Small Greek Island Of Ikaria Plans To Join Austria

17 July 2012 17:30 EDT

By eFXnews.com
   (I know not what course others may take but as for me—“give me Anschluss or give me….” I just cannot say how emphatically I agree with this idea!)

Ikaria, a 250 square mile island, wants to leave Greece and join Austria which is 1242 miles away from the small Greek island, Italian daily “Libero” reported.

The roots behind such a bizarre decision dated back to 1912 in the midst of the Turkish-Italian War. The islanders made advantage of that historical moment and declared their independence from the Ottoman Empire. In the same year, they signed a 100 year agreement to join Greece which is set to expire this week.

Now as the crisis takes its toll on the islanders, they think to join another European state for a better future.

“To remain independent is difficult for us; we want to connect to another state. Of course, we won’t ask Turkey; we prefer to join Austria,” said an Ikaria resident according to the report.

In the meantime, the islanders have some basic demands from Athens should they agree to renew their agreement.

“If they can’t assure us now new roads and a new hospital, we may decide to break away from Athens,” the report quoted another Ikaria resident as saying.

Copyright © 2012 eFXnews
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Griechische Insel will sich Österreich anschließen

WELT ONLINEVon Max Boenke | WELT ONLINE – vor 17 Stunden

Das kleine Eiland Ikaria in der Ägäis hat genug von der Wirtschaftskrise. Die Insulaner wollen sich Österreich anschließen. Möglich machen soll das ein auslaufendes Abkommen mit Athen.

Von der griechischen Insel Ikaria bis nach Wien sind es etwa 2000 Kilometer. Kein Hindernis für die Insulaner aus der Ägäis mit den Österreichern große Zukunftspläne zu schmieden.

Ikaria jedenfalls hat genug von der Krise seiner Festland-Schwester und plant die Loslösung von Athen und anschließend die Angliederung an Österreich. Laut der italienischen Tageszeitung “Libero” überlegen die Bewohner Ikarias durch eine Volksabstimmung zu entscheiden, sich unabhängig zu machen.

Anlass für die skurrile Überlegung ist die Tatsache, dass in dieser Woche das 100-jährige Annektierungs-Abkommen zwischen Athen und Ikaria ausläuft. Die Insel gehörte bis zum Jahr 1912 zum Osmanischen Reich. In jenem Jahr tobte der Italienisch-Türkische Krieg, die Insulaner nutzten die Gunst der Stunde, erkämpften ihre Unabhängigkeit und erklärten sich kurzerhand zum Freistaat. Wenig später allerdings schloss man einen Angliederungsvertrag mit Griechenland. Vertragsdauer: 100 Jahre.

Im Jahr 2012 herrscht in Griechenland zwar kein grausamer Krieg mehr aber dafür eine heftige Wirtschaftskrise. Und wieder wollen die Bewohner der etwa 250 Quadratkilometer großen Insel die Gelegenheit nutzen und einen Neubeginn wagen. “Athen hat uns vergessen, deshalb denken wir über eine Angliederung an Österreich nach”, sagte wohl ein Sprecher von Ikarias Bürgermeister Stafrinadis Christodoulos.

Auf den ersten Blick erscheint die Angliederung an Österreich etwas wahllos, doch bei genauerer Betrachtung ist das Alpenland die einzig logische Konsequenz. Die etwa 60 Kilometer entfernte Türkei ist nach Ikarias Abnabelung vom Osmanischen Reich eher unbeliebt und im Zweiten Weltkrieg stand die Insel zwischenzeitig unter deutscher und italienischer Besatzung. Bleibt ja quasi nur noch Österreich. Grundsätzlich wäre die Annäherung zwischen Mittelmeer und Neusiedlersee ja auch ein wunderbares Zeichen der Europäischen Integration und Identifikation.

Für die Insulaner ist die sonderbare Ankündigung zumindest eine Möglichkeit auf sich aufmerksam zu machen: “Wenn man uns jetzt keine neuen Straßen und kein Krankenhaus zusichern kann, können wir die Loslösung von Athen beschließen”, drohen sie.

Zum Freistaat aber wollen sie nicht zurückkehren: “Unabhängig zu bleiben, ist für uns schwierig. Wir könnten aber den Anschluss zu einem anderen Staat fordern. Natürlich nicht zur Türkei, lieber zu Österreich”, sagten die Bewohner bei den Feierlichkeiten zum 100-jährigen Jubiläum ihrer Unabhängigkeit.

Die separatistischen Drohungen des kleinen Ikarias bereiten den Griechen indes große Sorgen. Das Meer um die Insel ist für die Fischerei besonders wichtig, und Ikarias Fischer beliefern einen Großteil des Athener Fischmarkts. Die Loslösung der Insel könnte für die griechische Wirtschaft gravierende Folgen haben, berichtete “Libero”.

Ob Ikaria demnächst tatsächlich zehntes Bundesland in Österreich wird – dazu hat die griechische Botschaft in Wien eine klare Meinung: “Griechenland wird nicht föderalistisch, sondern einheitlich verwaltet”.

Es bestehe somit “kein auslaufendes Abkommen zwischen der griechischen Regierung und der Insel”. Der Vertrag von Lausanne aus dem Jahr 1923 würde außerdem in Artikel 12 bestätigen, dass die Inseln der Ostägäis, darunter auch Ikaria, zu Griechenland gehören, so die Botschaft.