Tag Archives: Kingdom of Poland

Christian Victory at Lepanto in 1571—preserved Western and Northern Europe to become the Greatest Civilization on Earth for the Next Four Hundred Years—now subject to reversal by fiat of Northern & Western European Governments?

Today in 1571, the Austrian Hapsburg Emperor of Germany, allied with the Kingdom of the Poles and Republic of Venice, and others, defeated the Ottoman Empire and so built a wall against the conquest of Europe by Islam that lasted until the Ottoman Empire finally “withered away” in the late 19th century and disappeared, with dramatic, synchronic irony, in the same years as the Hapsburg Empire of Austria-Hungary.  

In Southern California, there is a town named after a Christian “Soldier Saint” and warrior hero who died 115 years earlier after successfully defending Belgrade in Serbia from the Ottoman onslaught a mere three years after the final capture and Conquest of Constantinople in 1453, which marked the end of the millennium-long existence of the Greco-Roman “Byzantine” or “Eastern Roman Empire”—a true “thousand year Reich” in world history (perhaps the first and [by that time in history the only] complex nation-state formation, in fact, ever to exist for so long).  

That town is San Juan Capistrano—named after an Italian born Saint John of Capistrano who died of the bubonic plague in Ilok in Croatia shortly after the Battle of Belgrade in 1456, which he had won in alliance with the Hungarian General and Dux Bellorum John Hunyadi.  Even though he was about 70, Saint John led his own troops into battle personally.  Saint John died on October 23, 1456 and that is his day in the Catholic Calendar—although for about 80 years he was celebrated on March 28, 2014, just two days after St. Joseph’s Day, when the swallows are supposed to return to the oldest European Settlement in Orange County (founded, symbolically enough, in 1776).  

My, how Europe has changed…..

Last month, Dr. Tomislav Sunic came from Croatia to Southern California to lecture (ostensibly) on the Muslim invasion of Europe and the dangers of multiculturalism.   Some, notably Rodney Martin of the American Nationalist Network and American Nationalist Association, felt that Dr. Sunic’s talks were too “soft” on the enemies of multi-nationalism.  This is an argument that probably a dozen people in the world care about, but since I was drawn into the argument, I mention it.  

Since leaving the United States, Dr. Sunic went back to Croatia and then to Hungary, where he was to attend a Conference which was suppressed by the police, even in beautiful (and normally quite conservative) Budapest:

 


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Jir4TOBgC2o

 

Defying the Budapest Ban: The Rebel vs the Dissident

October 7, 2014 — Leave a Comment

Tom Sunic

Despite the ban by the Hungarian government, the NPI conference did take place in Budapest on October 5, albeit in a truncated version but with an air of rebellion and emotional intensity. A day earlier, despite the arrest of the NPI Chairman Mr. Richard Spencer, despite constant police surveillance of all NPI guests, and despite the fact that there were only two official speakers, the conference turned out to be a surprising success.  The distinct possibility of a police crackdown on the venue did not prevent more than 70 people from attending the dinner and listen to the speeches delivered by Jared Taylor and myself.  Two journalists, one from the BBC, the other from the German dailyDie Welt, covered the event and interviewed the speakers (BBCDie Welt).

The genesis, the unfolding, and the subsequent end of the NPI event in Budapest, including the earlier arrest of  Richard Spencer, have been more or less  objectively  reported  by friendly  websites.  What lessons can we now draw? Here are some eclectic remarks and tentative suggestions,  from the lexical, legal, philosophical and sociobiological perspective.

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Legality and Legitimacy 

The well -planned and well-advertised NPI conference scheduled to take place in Budapest from October 3 to October 5 as well as the shortened version, were in clear violation of a previous legal decision reached by the Hungarian government. One must emphasize that the official ban had not been decreed by local Antifa groups,  leftist hacklers,  paleo-communist students, LGTB agitators,  or some Jewish lobby—although, of course, one cannot rule out at all that these organizations had earlier put mighty pressure on Viktor Orban’s  government to ban the conference. Had the Leftists or the Antifas, instead of the government of Hungary, tried to disrupt the planned conference of their own,  as is so often the case in Germany, the NPI would have at least enjoyed some semblance of legal protection.

This was not the case. The Hungarian government ban was an official ukase right from the start. The ultimate consequences were to be reckoned with.  About the reasons of the ban, or about those who might have been behind it, one could speculate for years and never arrive at one single and persuasive conclusion. State legality, as the German legal scholar Carl Schmitt extensively wrote long time ago, lies often in contradistinction to state legitimacy. The ex-Soviet Union, or the present day North Korea, or Cuba for that matter, were and still are states abiding by the rule of law.  To what extent, however, the rule of law in these countries has a legitimate foundation  — well, this remains a very different story.

Lexicon and Locutions

The NPI dinner- talk was not a “racist gathering “or a “White supremacist” Oktoberfest or “Spencerfest,” as some media had derisively announced.  The shorthand version of the NPI conference took shape in the form of a dinner where the two speakers delivered their academic talks in front of approximately 70 guests. All the guests in attendance can be described as non- conformists and free thinkers of European extraction who had arrived to the venue from all parts of the world not to indulge in alleged nationalist and racist ravings, but to hear and meet other likeminded non-conformist individuals. The prime focus of the speakers’ lectures was the aberrant nature of multicultural mendacity of the System and the necessity for the unity of all the peoples of European extraction. In this sense, conference, although modest in size, was of historic importance.

The first conclusion one can draw:  The masters of the discourse of the System were nervous and afraid, which could best be seen in the unnecessary overreaction of the Hungarian government and the big publicity the NPI received thereafter. The System master plan backfired.  Undoubtedly, the main problem facing most White nationalists in the USA and Europe is how to come to grips with the terror of the liberal meta-language and its signifiers whose signified are being deliberately doctored up anew by the System and its scribes. Relatively new locutions such as  “hate speech,” “White supremacists,” “fascist,”  “neo- Nazis”, have been in use in the mainstream media  for a very long period of  time — to the point that they have by now lost their original meaning and their judicial weight, even among those who use them as shut-up words against modern non-conformists, rebels and heretics.

In fact, these signifiers have by now become a badge of honor for any would be non-conformist rebel, regardless of his or her ideological stripes. (Historical note: Leo Trotsky, a Bolshevik of Jewish origin was also dubbed “fascist” by Stalin in 1939, as was the former maverick communist head of the Yugoslav state, Josip Broz Tito). White nationalists in the EU and USA should start re-appropriating their own discourse and avoid insignia reminiscent of the fascism or National Socialism of the 1930s and 40s.  Why not use words, such as “Euro –American heretics,” or “European rebels” instead of the value loaded locution “White nationalist“  — a locution that  originated in the fevered brains of the thought police like the SPLC and the ADL?

Rebels vs Dissidents

Right in forefront of the first circle of Dante’s Inferno we encounter opportunists of all stripes. Let us be honest. Yes-men and sycophants make up the vast majority of citizens in any contemporary Western society.  Both the Hungarian Prime minister Viktor Orbán and his head of the police, himself a former big time communist police officialSándor Pintér,  had started their career as  communist youth members, i.e. komsomolci in  the  former communist Hungary.

Alas, old dogs cannot be taught new tricks! Their homo sovieticus phenotype may have changed, but their communist genotype has remained the same. They, along with practically all East European political elites, will dance to the music of any new world hegemon — if historical circumstances require it. This is known as the “German syndrome,” as for example when the German government needs to prove over and over again and beyond any public doubt that Germany is a more philo-Semitic country than any other country in Europe.  Not long ago politicians in Eastern Europe avidly hurried to the Kremlin in order to display their communist party loyalty. Now, in order to display their liberal credentials the same ones and their younger liberal progeny, even if not invited, avidly hurry to Tel Aviv, with all due subsequent genuflections in Washington DC and Brussels. The same could be said about many modern academics in the USA and the EU who privately share every word of the NPI speakers, but who publicly realize that systemic brownnosing to the System pays off much better than upholding their honor.

Many non-conformists  of European extraction, aka White nationalists, make a serious mistake when using synonymously the words ‘dissident’ and  ‘rebel.’  Many anticommunist dissidents who had come from the Soviet Union to the USA during the Cold War remained self-proclaimed dissidents, yet learned quickly how to fawn over their new masters. Hundreds of them have made glorious careers as advisors and professors in the USA.

But they are not rebels; they never questioned the other side of the same System. The writer Alexander Solzhenitsyn was a rebel. On the other hand, Alexander Sakharov, the human rights preacher and the former Soviet party hack who transformed himself into a Western anticommunist, was not a rebel. Sakharov preferred American fame and glitz even if it implied selling out his soul twice. Rebels never sell out to any Mephistopheles even if they sometimes unwittingly conjure up bad spirits that turn against them. Rebels not only question the prevailing regime; they question themselves and their own ideas 24 hours a day.

In classical literature we encounter true rebels, as for instance in the works of Ernst Jünger, or in the dramas of Friedrich Schiller. A rebel never sells out.  Richard Spencer is a true non-conformist and rebel and a true hero, precisely because he would reject these flattering labels. He did not crave the media limelight, nor did he  mimic a heretic, like so many “right-wingers” or Hollywood nutsies do.  He fought for a simple right to free speech. A rebel is a man of impeccable character and of absolute moral integrity who puts the interests of his community above his own private interests, and above the interests of his family.

One could illustrate the spirit of the rebel by the quote of the philosopher Emile Cioran: “A rebel never expects anything from anybody; neither from people, nor from gods.”

Dr. Tom Sunic is a former political science professor and a member of the Board of Directors of the American Freedom Party. His new book isChroniques des temps postmodernes (Avatar, 2014).

May the Fourth be with You (and with thy Spirit)…. May 3rd was Day of the Holy Cross (in the Old BCP anyhow); Warnings from History about the Coming Dark Age: May 3 is also Polish Constitution of 1791 Day, and the 60th Anniversary of the Youngstown Sheet & Tube Company Petition for Certiorari

Yes, May the Fourth is international Star Wars Day (“May the Fourth be with You”—but watch out for the “Revenge of the Fifth”), and yesterday, all over Western Christendom, is or at least used to be called “the Day of the Holy Cross” (this construction of the Calendar is sometimes said to be a “Gallican” custom, involving the mixture of Celtic rites of Beltane [May Day] with Christianity, in the time of Saint Gregory of Tours and other such French sources predating the time of Charlamagne*, but even as a 20th century Anglican/Episcopalian, I grew up thinking that Constantine’s Mother the Empress Helen**  went to Jerusalem and found the “true Cross” fragments on May 3, and when I started traveling to and living in Mexico I found that the Mexicans [in “Veracruz” and elsewhere] still celebrate the 3rd, notwithstanding anything Pope John XXIII did the year I was born [1960], and the Maya of Yucatán—see my birthday greetings for Pedro Un Cen on May 1—still celebrate May 3 as the day that the Chaacs (the Ancient Maya Raingods) return to the land from the East to start the beginning of the rainy season, but Last things first:

POLISH CONSTITUTION OF 1791 Day: A Warning for our Time

Most Americans have heard of American Revolutionary War hero General  Andrzej Tadeusz Bonawentura Kościuszko (at least by the shorter version of his name: Tadeusz Kosciuszko).  He came to the United States to assist in the War of Independence for no reason other than he thought it was the right thing to do.  He was a volunteer Patriot in Founding a country 1/3 of the way around the world from his homeland.  

I have the feeling that Kosciuszko lived to feel even more defeated than John W. Davis….(see my adjoining post on the 60th Anniversary of the Youngstown Sheet & Tube Petition for Writ of Certiorari) possibly more like Jefferson Davis must have felt…..  

Kosciuszko lived long enough after the American Revolution to see first the French Revolution, then the final partition of his own homeland by three of the major powers OPPOSED to the French Revolution, the restoration of the core of his homeland (briefly) between 1807 and 1815, and then the final re-annexation of Poland by Russia after the Congress of Vienna in 1815—a situation which would endure for another 104 years….

After helping launch the American nation, with a career comparable and in some ways parallel to the actions of the Marquis de Lafayette in France, Kosciuszko went back to his native Poland where he tried to rebuild and save his own nation, and modernize its constitution in light of what he had learned and seen in America. I have previously, on this blog, mentioned the wonderful Polish Professor Wiktor Osiatynski under whom I was privileged to study at the University of Chicago 1990-1991 and my fascination with the Polish nation and constitutional history has never ceased since then.  Poland is a Phoenix-like nation having been consumed by fire into ashes and portioned by its neighbors Germany and Russia at least twice (and Austria once).  The metaphoric image of the mythical Phoenix arising from its flames parallels takes on added and appropriate meaning given Poland’s association with the City and University of Chicago, not least since Chicago is the largest Polish-speaking urban area anywhere outside of Poland and the City itself has at least once or twice in history arisen from the flames (after the Great Fire of 1871, but arguably again after the riots of 1968 also…).  

On May 3, Poland celebrated the 221st anniversary of the Constitution of 1791, the last Constitution before the two final (18th century) partitions of Poland 1793-1795.   The Twentieth Century Partition of Poland, between Nazi Germany and Stalinist Russia was in a thousand ways much worse, more brutal, more destructive, but also much shorter in duration.  The 18th Century Partitions of Poland were reversed by the Emperor Napoleon I Bonaparte in 1807 as he vainly tried to restrict and limit the power of Prussia.  The Von Ribbentrop-Molotov (aka “Stalin-Hitler”) Pact of 1941 was reversed a mere four years later, but not before Poland had not only been savaged by Nazi occupation but by the Stalinist reprisal which, in terms of meaningful reality, involved much vaster forced migrations than any that history had ever seen, and comparable only to the forced internal migrations (poorly documented though they are) which took place in Maoist China during the “Cultural Revolution”.  

Now you might ask, why should an American care about learning the details of Polish Constitutional History?  As Professor Wiktor Osiatynski made us all aware in the two courses he taught that year at the University of Chicago, Poland’s constitutional history was a major source of its downfall.  Prior to meeting and studying with Wiktor, my primary familiarity with recent modern Poland had been a vague knowledge of the partitions of the late 18th century, the fact that Napoleon I had created the Duchy of Warsaw, and that Chopin and many other 19th century artists had gained fame for the culture of Poland and quietly advocated the restoration of Polish Sovereignty and Nationality.

Of course, I had also been very generally aware from a lifetime obsession with historical cartography, I was aware that Poland had once been the largest nation in Europe—a fact, again, which probably very few Americans must know.***  Yes, the combination of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Kingdom of Poland once not merely “dominated” but in effect “was” all of Eastern Europe—controlling during most of the 15th-early 18th Centuries all of the territory from the Baltic to the Black Seas, dwarfing “barbarous” Russian during most of that time, although Russia started climbing out of an inferior position in the 16th century, though it did not achieve “world nation” status until the 18th under Peter and Catherine the Great.  

But indeed, the Constitutional History of Poland and Lithuania together is very interesting, and historically relevant for Americans, especially in this day and age.  Lithuania, so it was forced to ally more closely with Poland, uniting with its western neighbor as the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (Commonwealth of Two Nations) in the Union of Lublin of 1569. According to the Union many of the territories formerly controlled by the Grand Duchy of Lithuania were transferred to the Crown of the Polish Kingdom, while the gradual process of Polonization slowly drew Lithuania itself under Polish domination. The Grand Duchy retained many rights in the federation (including a separate government, treasury and army) until the May 3 Constitution of Poland was passed in 1791. 

I submit to you, “my fellow Americans” that we today are much like Poland—because of the abrogation of our traditional Federal Union into a centralized dictatorship, we are weak and face extinction, division, and perhaps even partition between, say, China, Mexico, and a resurgent Europe.  

* Pope Adrian I between 784 and 791 sent Charlemagne, at the King of the Franks’ personal request, a copy of what was considered to be the Sacramentary of Saint Gregory, which certainly represented the Western Roman “Early Dark Ages” use of the end of the eighth century.  This book, far from complete, was edited and supplemented by the addition of a large amount of matter derived from the Gallican books and from the Roman book known as the Gelasian Sacramentary, which had been gradually supplanting the Gallican. The editor may well have been Charlemagne’s principal liturgical advisor, the  Englishman Alcuin. Copies were distributed throughout Charlemagne’s empire, and this “composite liturgy”, as Duchesne says, “from its source in the Imperial chapel spread throughout all the churches of the Frankish Empire and at length, finding its way to Rome gradually supplanted there the ancient use”. More than half a century later, when Charles the Bald wished to see what the ancient Gallican Rite had been like, it was necessary to import Hispanic priests to celebrate it in his presence, because the Gallican rite took root firmly in Toledo, Viscaya, Aragon, Catalunia, and elsewhere in the land of the Christian Visigoths of Hispania before the arrival of the Moors (and survived there ever after, even during the Caliphate of Cordoba—which resilience explains why May 3 remains the Day of the Holy Cross everywhere in Latin America).

The Luxeuil Lectionary, the Gothicum and Gallicum Missals, and the Gallican adaptations of the Hieronymian Martyrology are the chief authorities on this point, and to these may be added some information to be gathered from the regulations of the Councils of Agde (506), Orléans (541),Tours (567), and Mâcon (581), and from the “Historia Francorum” of St. Gregory of Tours, as to the Gallican practice in the sixth century.

** Constantine’s Mother the Empress Helen did a lot of traveling and established a lot of Churches.  Named after Helen of Troy, Empress Helen kept the name alive and popular among the Christians, and it was the Empress Helen, I am told, after whom were named both my Louisiana-born grandmother who raised me with love and my Greek-born wife who razed me with something else.

***For my lifelong obsession with maps, I have mostly my mother to blame, because she bought me so many Atlases–Shepard’s Historical Atlas, Oxford Historical Atlas, just for starters–when I was very small and for some reason decorated my boyhood room with a collection historical individually framed maps of almost every county in England, Wales, & Scotland—this led to my grandparents, somewhat later, always putting me in charge of studying the maps when we traveled and making reports on local geography as we did—Baedeker was almost like a family friend, and sometimes AAA and National Geographic.

For the First Sunday in Advent, the Magnificat in English, French, Greek, Latin, and Polish (Gospel of Luke 1: 46-55)

As far back into infancy as I can recall, the Magnificat was among the very earliest things I remember learning in life.  My mother taught me this version from the 1662 Church of England Book of Common Prayer, published as revised during the reign of Charles Edward Stuart, II.  During Advent, we remember that Mary was the real force who linked the Old and New Testaments as one single story, remembering her own ancestors and God’s promise to Abraham at the same time as carrying within her the seed of the whole new Covenant:

My soul doth magnify the Lord : and my spirit hath rejoiced in God my Saviour.  For he hath regarded : the lowliness of his handmaiden.  For behold, from henceforth : all generations shall call me blessed.  For he that is mighty hath magnified me : and holy is his Name.  And his mercy is on them that fear him : throughout all generations.  He hath shewed strength with his arm : he hath scattered the proud in the imagination of their hearts.  He hath put down the mighty from their seat : and hath exalted the humble and meek.   He hath filled the hungry with good things : and the rich he hath sent empty away.  He remembering his mercy hath holpen his servant Israel : as he promised to our forefathers, Abraham and his seed for ever.

My mother also taught me the Magnificat in French: Le Chanson de Marie (Le Magnificat désigne le cantique de la Vierge Marie dont il est question dans l’Évangile selon Luc au chapitre 1, versets 46 à 56 (visite de Marie à Elisabeth ou visitation). Il est aussi appelé Cantique de Marie).

Le Seigneur fit pour moi des merveilles, saint est son nom!
Mon âme exalte le Seigneur, exulte mon esprit en Dieu, mon Sauveur!   Il s’est penché sur son humble servante ; désormais, tous les âges me diront bienheureuse.   Le Puissant fit pour moi des merveilles ; Saint est son nom !   Son amour s’étend d’âge en âge sur ceux qui le craignent.  Déployant la force de son bras, il disperse les superbes.   Il renverse les puissants de leurs trônes, il élève les humbles.  Il comble de bien les affamés, renvoie les riches les mains vides.  Il relève Israël, son serviteur, il se souvient de son amour, de la promesse faite à nos pères, en faveur d’Abraham et de sa race, à jamais.  Gloire au Père, au Fils, au Saint-Esprit maintenant et à jamais dans les siècles des siècles.

It wasn’t until College that I got around to learning this texts in Koiné Greek
Μεγαλύνει ἡ ψυχή μου τὸν Κύριον
καὶ ἠγαλλίασεν τὸ πνεῦμά μου ἐπὶ τῷ Θεῷ τῷ σωτῆρί μου,
ὅτι ἐπέβλεψεν ἐπὶ τὴν ταπείνωσιν τῆς δούλης αυτοῦ.
ἰδού γὰρ ἀπὸ τοῦ νῦν μακαριοῦσίν με πᾶσαι αἱ γενεαί,
ὅτι ἐποίησέν μοι μεγάλα ὁ δυνατός,
καὶ ἅγιον τὸ ὄνομα αὐτοῦ,
καὶ τὸ ἔλεος αὐτοῦ εἰς γενεὰς καὶ γενεὰς
τοῖς φοβουμένοις αυτόν.
Ἐποίησεν κράτος ἐν βραχίονι αὐτοῦ,
διεσκόρπισεν ὑπερηφάνους διανοίᾳ καρδίας αὐτῶν·
καθεῖλεν δυνάστας ἀπὸ θρόνων
καὶ ὕψωσεν ταπεινούς,
πεινῶντας ἐνέπλησεν ἀγαθῶν
καὶ πλουτοῦντας ἐξαπέστειλεν κενούς.
ἀντελάβετο Ἰσραὴλ παιδὸς αὐτοῦ,
μνησθῆναι ἐλέους,
καθὼς ἐλάλησεν πρὸς τοὺς πατέρας ἡμῶν
τῷ Αβραὰμ καὶ τῷ σπέρματι αὐτοῦ εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα.

and Latin (although this is the slightly edited most “up to date”  Vatican RC Version approved by John Paul II):

Magnificat anima mea Dominum, et exsultavit spiritus meus in Deo salvatore meo, quia respexit humilitatem ancillae suae.  Ecce enim ex hoc beatam me dicent omnes generationes, quia fecit mihi magna,qui potens est, et sanctum nomen eius, et misericordia eius in progenies et progeniestimentibus eum.  Fecit potentiam in brachio suo,  dispersit superbos mente cordis sui;deposuit potentes de sedeet exaltavit humiles;esurientes implevit boniset divites dimisit inanes.  Suscepit Israel puerum suum, recordatus misericordiae,sicut locutus est ad patres nostros, Abraham et semini eius in saecula.

And finally, for Daria, in Polish:

Found this on-line, but it's quite beautiful....

I can't really read or type in Polish at all, honestly, and this is much more visually appealing anyhow... All I'm sure I can make out is "Abrahamowi" right at the end, more-or-less confirming that this IS the Magnificat...

Today at All Saints, the Reverend Barry Taylor delivered an amazing sermon on the parallels between the coming of Christmas and the coming of the Apocalypse, and of God’s time and of being awake or asleep while waiting.  Simultaneously, he was eloquent, entertaining, and awe-inspiring, contrasting the laconic text of Mark with the more flowery prose of the other Gospels.  But the connexion with Advent and the preparation for the first earthly appearance of Jesus was minimal, and I think that’s too bad (but I don’t get to set the Scripture readings in Church….)

Up to a very real point I think that the stories of Mary, the mother of Jesus, and also of Mary Magdalene, the first to see the empty tomb, did more to make Christianity acceptable and familiar to the pagan gentiles of the world than any other two single aspects of the Gospels.  The proof of this is in the Universality of “Mary” as the most common woman’s name anywhere and everywhere the world has accepted Christ.  It is almost impossible to reconcile Saint Paul’s near misogyny with Jesus’ tolerance and obvious love of the women in his life, and of women generally.  While 1 Corinthians 13: 1-13 is rightly known as the “Hymn to Love,” this divine love or agape is not the kind of richly human love and relationships of which Jesus’ mother sings in the Magnificat, nor of which we celebrate during the successive seasons of Advent,  Christmas, and Epiphany.  What would Paul have said to Saint Joseph (whom I once played in a public school Nativity Play in Texas—the very concept of a “public school nativity play” is kind of astounding in 2011—but J.S. Armstrong elementary in Highland Park, Texas, well that was a different place and a different time altogether from anyplace in the United States today that I know of…)…what would Saint Paul (formerly Saul) have said to Saint Joseph during Advent about Joseph’s pregnant wife, and the fact that the two of them had not been married at the obvious time of Jesus’ conception?  Paul completely ignores all of that in his Epistles.  I cannot find the name of “Mary”, nor the words “Annunciation,” “Mother of Jesus”, “Angel Gabriel,” or anything like that even in Fr. Joseph A. Fitzmyer’s index or concordance to his exhaustive commentary on First Corinthians in the Anchor Yale Bible (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2008). Fitzmyer comments that Paul only refers briefly that he knew the Lord’s Brothers (1 Corinthians 9:5) and elsewhere in Galatians 1:19 indicates that he (Paul) knew James, the Brother of Jesus and First Bishop of Jerusalem as one of the Apostles.  This is pretty much all that Paul says of Jesus’ family.  (See especially Fitzmyer 2008: 353-359).  “Brotherhood” and family in 1 Corinthians refers to the community of believers—an abstract family bound by spiritual values rather than blood, whereas the Gospels are all so intimately physical and related to Jesus’ capacity to be human, eat and drink with everyone, touch and heal the sick, embrace sinners, and ultimately to die.   The practical and earth Pagan world of Europe and Egypt would never have accepted Paul’s Christianity alone.  The hierarchical political world of the Roman Empire would never have accepted Jesus’ Gospels of Love and Tolerance alone.   In Mary the people and the Church found their Earthly and Heavenly Queen, and this is (to me anyhow) the essential lesson on which we must focus during the Season of Advent.

March 5, 2011, Inauguration of (unelected) Rutherford B. Hayes (1877), Impeachment of Andrew Johnson (1868), the Boston Massacre (1770), First Temperance Law in America (1623), Copernicus “De Revolutionibus” Banned (1616), 3rd Lateran Council (1179)—on the whole March 5 has not been a good day for Civil Rights in History

March 5 Events in History
 

I confess to have plagiarized the skeleton for this day in history from another site called “www.brainyhistory.com”, although there’s honestly nothing so very brainy about this particular list—see the lack of historically important or even relevant events for most of the 20th century.   However, it seemed like as good a source as any and I have added my own comments where appropriate, so there is “value added” here.  However, I think the list of events in itself is notable: for most of the 20th century, the only events recorded occurred in the entertainment and sports arenas.  Real historical events are largely absent from the 20th century record, although a few start being listed in the 19th century.   In Aldous Huxley’s Brave New World, a mindless addiction to sports, entertainment, and film entertainment (including television), together with free love (consequence and even emotion-free) sex plus constantly piped music in public places, were all integral and indispensable elements and aspects of the world- governmental plan, together with drugs, to keep a zombified and mostly uneducated population completely under control and docile.   In Edward Gibbons’ Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, the historian has a throw-away comment which has become popularized about how the empire entertained and controlled the masses with “bread and circuses”.  It is hard not to feel that there are certain parallels and genuine structural-functional kinship between the socio-political reality of 2nd-3rd century Rome and the modern worldwide “Pax Americana”. The average American can name more sports and movie stars than senators or representatives, and nobody seems happier with this situation than sports and movie stars AND senators and representatives, the latter largely operating behind the scenes occupied by the more flamboyant social and sex lives of the former.   If people think too much, they become dissatisfied, so play music constantly, blast television constantly, and make sure that there is little or no political or philosophical content to either.  That is how you keep a good, quiet, unfree but not unhappy population…..

2010 Gordon Brown, United Kingdom’s Prime Minister, gives evidence to the Iraq Inquiry
1997 Tommy Lasorda, Nellie Fox and Willie Wells for Hall of Fame
1996 Earl Weaver and Jim Bunning, elected to Hall of Fame
1995 21st People’s Choice Awards: Tim Allen wins
1995 Estonia Centrumlinkse Coalition party wins parliamentary election
1995 Graves of czar Nicholas and family found in St. Petersburg
1995 Marc Velzeboer skates world record 3 km short track (5:00.26)
1994 Dottie Mochrie wins Chrysler-Plymouth Tournament of Golf Championship
1994 Largest milkshake (1,955 gallons of chocolate-Nelspruit South Africa)
1994 PBA National Championship won by David Traber
1994 Singer Grace Slick arrested for pointing a gun at a cop
1993 Boston Celtic Larry Bird undergoes backfusion surgery
1993 Fokker 100 crashes at Skopje Macedonia, 81 die
1993 Former Washington D.C. Mayor Marion Barry divorces his wife Effi
1993 Marlins beat Astros 12-8 in their 1st spring training game
1992 Ethic committee votes to reveal congressmen who bounced checks
1991 Iraq repealed its annexation of Kuwait
1991 Reggie Miller (Indiana) begins NBA free throw streak of 52 games
1989 19th Easter Seal Telethon raises $37,002,000
1989 Blains McCallister wins Honda Golf Classic shooting 266
1989 Elly Verhulst runs world record 3000 m indoor (8:33.82)
1986 “Today” tabloid launched (Britain’s 1st national color newspaper)
1985 New York Islander Mike Bossy is 1st to score 50 goals in 8 straight seasons
1984 Supreme Court (5-4): city may use public money for Nativity scene
1984 U.S. accuse Iraq of using poison gas
1983 Bob Hawke (Labour) defeats Australian Prime Minister Malcolm Fraser (Cons)
1983 NSW beat Western Australia by 54 runs to win Sheffield Shield
1982 Gaylord Perry (with 297 wins) signs with Seattle Mariners
1982 Russian spacecraft Venera 14 lands and sends back data from Venus
1981 “Bring Back Birdie” opens at Martin Beck Theater New York City for 4 performances
1981 Ice Dance Championship at Hartford won by Jayne Torvill and C Dean (GRB)
1981 Ice Pairs Champ at Hartford won by Irina Vorobieva and I Lisovski (URS)
1981 Men’s Figure Skating Champions in Hartford won by Scott Hamilton (USA)
1981 U.S. government grants Atlanta $1 million to search for black boy murderer
1980 Earth satellites record gamma rays from remnants of supernova N-49
1979 Voyager I’s closest approach to Jupiter (172,000 miles)
1978 “Hello, Dolly!” opens at Lunt-Fontanne Theater New York City for 152 performances
1978 Landsat 3 launched from Vandenberg AFB, California
1976 British pounds falls below $2 for 1st time
1974 “Candide” opens at Broadway Theater New York City for 740 performances
1974 Ralph Stewart failed in 2nd Islander penalty shot
1973 Yankee pitchers Peterson and Kekich announce they swapped wives
1972 Greek composer Mikis Theodorakis leaves Communist Party
1970 Edison Theater opens at 240 W 47th St. New York City
1970 Nuclear non-proliferation treaty goes into effect
1970 SDS Weathermen terrorist group bomb 18 West 11th St. in New York City
1969 Gold reaches then record high ($47 per ounce) in Paris
1969 Gustav Heinemann elected president of West-Germany
1969 Joe Orton’s “What the Butler Saw,” premieres in London
1968 U.S. launches Solar Explorer 2 to study the Sun
1967 WEDN TV channel 53 in Norwich, CT (PBS) begins broadcasting
1966 75 MPH air currents causes BOAC 707 crash into Mount Fuji, 124 die
1966 Bob Seagren pole vaults 5.19m indoor world record
1966 Player reps elect Marvin Miller, as executive director of Players’ Association
1966 U.S. performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site
1965 1st performance of Walter Piston’s 8th Symphony
1965 Ernie Terrel beats Eddie Machen in 15 for heavyweight boxing title
1964 Atlanta Mayor Ivan Allen, Jr., announces a baseball team is moving there
1964 Emergency crisis proclaimed in Ceylon due to social unrest
1963 Beatles record “From Me to You” and “Thank You Girl”
1962 U.S. performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site
1960 Elvis Presley ends 2-year hitch in U.S. Army
1960 Ice Dance Championship at Vancouver won by Denny and Jones (GRB)
1960 Ice Pairs Championship at Vancouver won by Wagner and Paul (CAN)
1960 Men’s Figure Skating Championship in Vancouver won by Alain Giletti (FRA)
1960 Worlds Ladies Figure Skating Champions in Vanc won by Carol E Heiss (USA)
1959 Iran and U.S. sign economic / military treaty
1958 Explorer 2 fails to reach Earth orbit
1958 KDUH TV channel 4 in Scottsbluff-Hay Spring, NB (ABC) 1st broadcast
1957 Eamon de Valera’s Fianna Fail-party wins election in Ireland
1957 Sergeant Bilko satirizes Elvis Presley (Elvis Pelvin)
1956 “King Kong,” 1st televised
1956 Mickey Wright wins LPGA Jacksonville Golf Open
1955 WBBJ TV channel 7 in Jackson, Tennessee (ABC) begins broadcasting
1954 “Girl in Pink Tights” opens at Mark Hellinger New York City for 115 performances
1952 Terence Rattigan’s “Deep Blue Sea,” premieres in London
1949 Bradman plays his last innings in 1st-class cricket, gets 30
1948 Actor Eli Wallach marries actress Anne Jackson
1948 U.S. rocket flies record 4800 KPH to 126k height
1946 Winston Churchill’s “Iron Curtain” speech in Fulton, Missouri; nothing has ever happened in Fulton, Missouri, before or since he spoke there.
1945 Allies bombs The Hague, Netherlands
1945 Generals Eisenhower, Patton and Patch meet in Luneville
1945 U.S. 7th Army Corps captures Cologne
1945 U.S. Ladies Figure Skating championship won by Gretchen Merrill
1944 1st performance of Walter Piston’s 2nd Symphony
1943 Anti fascist strikes in Italy ultimately lead to collapse of Mussolini and Italy’s realignment with the Anti-Fascist Allies, spelling ultimate doom for Hitler’s Germany.
1943 RAF bombs Essen, Rhineland, Germany
1942 Tito establishes 3rd Proletariat Brigade in Bosnia
1942 Dmitri Shostakovich’ 7th Symphony, premieres in Siberia
1942 Japanese troop march into Batavia
1936 Spitfire makes it’s 1st flight (Eastleigh Aerodrome in Southampton)
1935 1st premature baby health law in U.S. (Chicago)
1934 Mother-in-law’s day 1st celebrated (Amarillo, Texas)
1933 Franklin D. Roosevelt proclaims 10-day bank holiday
1933 Germany’s Nazi Party wins majority in parliament (43.9%-17.2M votes)
1931 Gandhi and British viceroy Lord Irwin sign pact
1928 Karl Zuckmayer’s “Der Hauptmann von Kopenick,” premieres in Berlin
1927 1,000 U.S. Marines land in China to protect American property
1924 Computing-Tabulating-Recording Corp becomes IBM
1924 Frank Carauna, becomes 1st to bowl 2 successive perfect 300 games
1924 King Hussein of Hedzjaz appoints himself kalief
1923 1st old age pension plans in U.S. established by Montana and Nevada
1922 “Nosferatu” premieres in Berlin; Vampires of the World Unite!  You have nothing to lose but your Crypts—you have a World of Cinema and Television shows and popular cultural immortality (“immortality”, a Latin rooted word = “athanati” in Greek = “undead” in English).
1919 Louis Hirsch and Harold Atteridge’s musical premieres in New York City
1917 1st jazz recording for Victor Records released
1912 Spanish steamer “Principe de Asturias” sinks NE of Spain, 500 die
1910 Ramon Inclan’s “La Farsa Infantil de la Cabeza del Dragon,” premieres
1910 Stanley Cup: Montreal Wanderers beat Ottawa Senators, 3-1
1908 1st ascent of Mount Erebus, Antarctica 

1908 Rex Harrison, born in England, actor, My Fair Lady, Dr. Doolittle

 

1907 1st radio broadcast of a musical composition aired
1903 Definitive treaty for construction of Baghdad railway drawn
1900 American Hall of Fame found
1899 1st performance of Edward MacDowell’s 2nd Concerto in D 

1898 Zhou Enlai, Chinese Statesman
1897 Mei-ling Soong, Madame Chiang Kai-shek

 

1896 Italian premier Crispi resigns
1896 Italians governor of Eritrea, General Baldissera, reaches Massawa
1894 Seattle authorizes 1st municipal employment office in U.S. 

1893 Emmett J. Culligan, founder of water treatment organization

 

1877 Rutherford B. Hayes inaugurated as 19th U.S. president; he was the First United States President until George W. Bush in 2000 who was neither fairly elected in the popular vote nor electoral college.  The real winner of the election of 1876 was Samuel J. Tilden, previously Mayor of New York City and Governor of New York, prosecutor of “Boss Tweed” and general White Hat Good Guy Democrat who promised the restoration of civil order and White Rule in the South after the atrocities of Reconstruction and the War Between the States.  President Ulysses S. Grant was suspicious of Tilden and most Republicans were simply unwilling to accept Tilden as President under any conditions.   Constitutional collapse was averted, as it was in 2000, by a massive subversion of the constitution and thwarting of popular will expressed through the ballot.   The “Compromise of 1877” led to the Inauguration of the defeated Republican Candidate Rutherford B. Hayes and the withdrawal of United States Troops from the South, returning de facto and de jure power to White Supremacist (formerly Confederate) majorities throughout the South.  Samuel J. Tilden retired to endow, build, and develop both Central Park and the New York Public Library.  He is one of the unsung heroes of American History.  He could fairly easily have started a second Civil War (with New York this time squarely on the side of the South—there were pro-Southern and anti-Union Draft riots in New York during the four year conflict) but instead Tilden accepted the corrupt result of the Compromise of 1877 to avoid the further destruction to which war would inevitably have led.
1872 George Westinghouse, Jr. patents triple air brake for trains 

1871 Maria do Carmo Geronimo, Brazilian lives to be at least 126
1870 [B] Franc[lin] Norris, U.S., writer, McTeague, Octopus
1870 Rosa Luxemburg, Polish Activist
1869 Michael von Faulhaber, cardinal and archbishop of Munich

 

1868 Arrigo Boito’s opera “Mefistofele,” premieres in Milan
1868 Stapler patented in England by C. H. Gould; plain white paper would never be safe again from repeated stabbing and mutilation.
1868 U.S. Senate organizes to decide charges against President Andrew Johnson; this was not the only idiotic impeachment trial ever actually held in the United States.  The charges against Andrew Johnson were basically that he was being too kind and lenient to his crushed homeland—the Southern United States, after the failure of Constitutional government led to secession and “Civil War” between the States in 1861-65.  As preposterous and unjust as the charges against Johnson were, the charges against William Jefferson Clinton tried in January-February 1999 were even stupider, arising from the President’s dalliance with White House Intern named Monica Lewinsky.  The people of the world for the most part simply looked at the idiots who put Clinton on trial and shook their heads.  The only socially important result of the Clinton Impeachment/Monica Lewinsky trial was that fellatio (female-to-male oro-genital sex) has been generally defined as “not sex” in American culture.  This preposterous result rests on the heads of Bill Clinton and his lawyers, and on his wife Hillary, who is now Secretary of State.
1864 1st track meet between Oxford and Cambridge
1862 Union troops under Brigadier-General Wright occupy Fernandina (on Amelia Island), in far Northeast Florida (Nassau County, north of Jacksonville, next to the Georgia Border).  Fernandina Island has one of the most bizarre histories in the South, as the site of a “Republic of Pirates” in the early years of the Nineteenth Century and many expeditionary exploits relating to U.S.-Spanish relations and the Independence Movement (and U.S. “Manifest Destiny”) in Mexico, Central, and South America.  Amelia Island/Fernandina was a major port for the slave-trade (officially abolished by law, and pursuant to the Constitution, in 1807).
1856 Covent Garden Opera House destroyed in a fire; it was rebuilt in order to serve as the opening setting for “My Fair Lady” starring Rex Harrison, born on this day in 1908…..
1856 Georgia becomes 1st state to regulate railroads; it is not clear whether General William Tecumsah Sherman violated any of the Georgia State Railroad regulations during his March to the Sea and burning of Atlanta in the fall of 1864, or whether the trains continued to operate pursuant to those regulations at all during the Yankee occupation….. Georgia railroads are shown in the movie “Gone with the Wind” but whether or not this portrayal is accurate no evidence of regulation is used as a plot device.   It seems likely that Sherman may have slowed railroad commerce in Georgia appreciably, thus defeating the purpose of the regulations.
1849 Zachary Taylor sworn in as 12th president
1845 Congress appropriates $30,000 to ship camels to western U.S.
1836 Samuel Colt manufactures 1st pistol, 34-caliber “Texas” model—this was during the Texas Revolution, 3 days after the Texas Declaration of Independence at Washington-on-the-Brazos and one day before the Fall of the Alamo on March 6, 1836. 

1824 James Merritt Ives, lithographer, Currier and Ives

 

1821 Monroe is 1st President inaugurated on March 5th, because 4th was Sun
1820 Dutch city of Leeuwarden forbids Jews to go to synagogues on Sundays 

1817 Austen H. Layard, British archaeologist and diplomat

 

1807 1st performance of Ludwig von Beethoven’s 4th Symphony in B
1795 Amsterdam celebrates Revolution on the Dam; Square of Revolution
1795 Treaty of Basel-Prussia ends war with France
1783 King Stanislaus Augustus Poniatowski grants rights to Jews of Kovno
1770 Boston Massacre, British troops kill 5 in crowd was the culmination of civilian-military tensions that had been growing since royal troops first appeared in Massachusetts in October 1768. The soldiers were in Boston to keep order in face of the growing discontent with the heavy taxation imposed by the Townshend acts. But townspeople viewed them not as order keepers but as oppressors and threats to independence. Brawls became common.In 1768, the Commissioners of Customs, who acquired their jobs in Britain and drew their pay from what they collected in America, were so intimidated by the resistance they met in Boston that they demanded military protection. Boston’s fifteen thousand or so residents were clearly the worst malcontents on the North American continent. It was imperative that they be put in their place. 

General Thomas Gage (Commander In Chief of the British Army in America) agreed and ordered the regiments (under the command of British Lt. Colonel William Dalrymple), the “14th West Yorkshire Fuseliers,” and the “29th Worcestershire,” to Boston, which would arrive from Halifax in September. Six weeks later the “64th” and “65th” Regiments, with an addition of a detachment of the “59th” Regiment and a train of artillery with two cannon — in all about 700 men — arrived from Ireland to protect the men who collected customs duties for the King of England. To the people of Boston the coming of the troops was outrageous. They had been fighting for years against infringement by Britain of their right to tax themselves.

In one of the most famous and elaborate of Paul Revere’s engravings, Landing of British Troops at Boston, it shows the arrival of the red-coated British troops. Revere wrote that the troops “formed and marched with insolent parade, drums beating, fifes playing, and colours flying, up King Street. Each soldier having received 16 rounds of powder and ball.” Troops of the 29th, unable to secure lodgings in town, pitched tents on the common. The stench from their latrines wafted through the little city on every breeze.

When Colonel Dalrymple requested that all of his men be assigned to the homes of citizens, the Boston council took a firm stand. It declared that citizens were not required to furnish quarters until all the barracks space was filled, and Castle William, in the harbor, had plenty of empty berths. Besides, British Redcoats had already made a deep impression upon Americans during the French and Indian War. These career soldiers were widely regarded as being surly, brutal, and greedy; and no man of any sense was ready to see even one of them put into the house with his wife and daughters.

Governor Bernard, however, had counted upon dispersing the troops into the homes of malcontents as a way of putting pressure upon them. He declared that concentrating soldiers at Castle William would thwart the decisions made in London. The Boston councilmen held firm and refused to budge. Desperate, the governor designated empty factory buildings and small, empty buildings throughout the city to the troops.

Even under normal circumstances the presence of General Thomas Gage’s troops (nearly one for every four inhabitants) would have led to trouble. Now, the imposition of an occupation force on a city already torn with strife, made bloodshed a foregone conclusion.

By 1770 Boston was an occupied town. It had been compelled to accept the presence of four regiments of British regulars. For eighteen months they had treated the inhabitants with insolence, posted sentries in front of public offices, engaged in street fights with the town boys, and used the Boston Common for flogging unruly soldiers and exercising troops (then acting governor, Lt. Governor Thomas Hutchinson of Massachusetts, refuted these allegations).

It began when a young barber’s apprentice by the name of Edward Garrick shouted an insult at Hugh White, a soldier of the 29th Regiment on sentry duty in front of the Customs House (a symbol of royal authority). White gave the apprentice a knock on the ear with the butt of his rifle. The boy howled for help, and returned with a sizable and unruly crowd, cheifly boys and youths, and, pointing at White, said, “There’s the son of a bitch that knocked me down!” Someone rang the bells in a nearby church. This action drew more people into the street. The sentry found himself confronting an angry mob. He stood his ground and called for the main guard. Six men, led by a corporal, responded. They were soon joined by the officer on duty, Captain John Preston of the “29th,” with guns unloaded but with fixed bayonets, to White’s relief.

The crowd soon swelled to almost 400 men. They began pelting the soldiers with snowballs and chunks of ice. Led by a huge mulatto, Crispus Attucks, they surged to within inches of the fixed bayonets and dared the soldiers to fire. The soldiers loaded their guns, but the crowd, far from drawing back, came close, calling out, “Come on you rascals, you bloody backs, you lobster scoundrels, fire if you dare, God damn you, fire and be damned, we know you dare not,” and striking at the soldiers with clubs and a cutlass.

Whereupon the soldiers fired, killing three men outright and mortally wounding two others. The mob fled. As the gunsmoke cleared, Crispus Attucks (left) and four others lay dead or dying. Six more men were wounded but survived.

Captain Preston, the soldiers, and four men in the Customs House alleged to have fired shots from it were promptly arrested, indicted for murder, and held in prison pending trial for murder in the Massachusetts Superior Court, which prudently postponed the trial until the fall, thus giving the people of Boston and vicinity from whom the jury would be drawn, time to cool off.

All troops were immediately withdrawn from town. John Adams defended the soldiers at their trials (Oct. 24-30 and Nov. 27-Dec. 5, 1770); Preston and four men were acquitted, while two soldiers were found guilty of manslaughter and released after being branded on the hand.

The calm with which the outcome of the trials was accepted doubtless was attributable in large measure to the evidence at the trials that the soldiers had not fired until they were attacked. But another important factor was the withdrawl of the troops from Boston immediately after the “Massacre.” The sending of British warships and troops to Boston for the protection of the American Customs Board and the “Massacre” resulting from the prescence of troops there were, however, ultimately of great significance in the movement toward the revolution.

The “Massacre” served as anti-British propaganda for Boston radicals and elsewhere heightened American fears of standing armies.

1766 Don Antonio de Ulloa takes possession of Louisiana Terr from French, three years after formal transfer of Louisiana West of the Mississippi from French to Spanish ownership in 1763.  His governorship was so ineffective and unpopular that there was a rebellion against Spanish Rule in 1768 which exiled Uloa and briefly restored French “Independence” from New Orleans to St. Louis, but this state of affairs lasted less than nine months (October 27, 1768-July 19, 1769) and ended when Irish-Spanish “Wild Goose” Count Alejandro O’Reilly, born in Dublin in 1722, arrived from Cuba with 2000 Spanish troops, arrested, tried, and executed five of the French Leaders of the short-lived rebellion.  It was a little known and rare occurrence for the White Creoles of the New World to rise up against their Colonial Masters, and this little episode in Louisiana history has gone largely ignored and forgotten for its lack of socio-historical progeny—and for the economic success Spanish “Luisiana” after O’Reilly’s repression of the French Creole uprising.  O’Reilly himself spent less than a year in New Orleans.
1760 Princess Carolina marries General Charles Christian van Nassau-Weilburg
1750 1st American Shakespearean production-“altered” Richard III, New York City
1746 Jacobite troops evacuate Aberdeen, Scotland, so hurriedly that they left a large stock of muskets and gunpowder which fall into the hands of the British and are no longer part of the arsenal in support of Bonnie Prince Charlie which met its final defeat one month and 11 days later on Culloden Muir just outside of Inverness to the east on April 16, 1746.  It was not the sort of withdrawal that makes its way into heroic ballads—one of the Jacobite officers is said to have left his pet cat sleeping in front of the fireplace.  (But history does not appear to record what disposition King George’s Government might have made of the feline aligned with the maligned malcontents who maladroitly miscarried their miniature move towards reverse (anti-Hanoverian) regime change.
1743 1st U.S. religious journal, The Christian History, published by Thomas Prince, Pastor of Boston’s Old South Church throughout , Boston to report on the revivals sweeping America and Europe. One who notably and memorably wrote to Prince in relation to “The Christian History” was Connecticut’s (and Yale University’s) “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God”/”The Ends for Which God Created Earth” preacher (and Vice-President/Killer of Alexander Hamilton—Aaron Burr’s Grandfather) Jonathan Edwards, who described the “Great Awakening” and changes taking place in Northampton (Massachusetts): “There has been vastly more religion kept up in the town, among all sorts of persons, in religious exercises, and in common conversation, than used to be before: there has remain’d a more general seriousness and decency in attending the publick worship; there has been a very great alteration among the youth of the town, with respect to revelling, frolicking, profane and unclean conversation, and lewd songs: instances of fornication have been very rare: there has also been a great alteration amongst both old and young with respect to tavern-haunting. I suppose the town has been in no measure so free of vice in these respects, for any long time together, for this sixty years, as it has been this nine years past. There has also been an evident alteration with respect to a charitable spirit to the poor.” The Christian History ran only two years. However, it’s founder, Thomas Prince was so influential that Prince Street and Princeton, Massachusetts were named after him. Francis Asbury, famed Methodist bishop, described reading the work with profit.  Jonathan Edwards died while President of the College of New Jersey, which also later became known as “Princeton”.
1684 Emperor Leopold I, Hapsburg Holy Roman Kaiser, the Kingdom of Poland, and the Republic Venice signed the “Holy Alliance of Linz”, whereby these three countries would form an alliance against the Turks, who were storing way too much gunpowder in the Parthenon, leading to that beautiful temple’s tragic destruction, but the truth is that the Ottoman Empire by this time was already stagnate and posed little real threat to Europe, especially compared to the events of the 15th-16th century, the time of the Conquest of Constantinople in 1453, the life of St. John Capistran (San Juan Capistrano), and finally the Battle of Lepanto in 1571 which the “Holy League” of Austria, Spain, Naples, Sicily, Sardinia, Savoy, the Republics of Genoa and Venice, and the Papal States turned back the Muslim tide, preventing Europe from becoming an Islamic Continent.   Since 1948, ironically enough, England and other European Countries have been inviting/allowing so many Muslim immigrants into Western Europe that the results of the Battle of Lepanto could well be nullified completely before the 500th anniversary of that event which will happen 60 years, seven months, and two days from the date of this blog on October 7, 2071.  Increasingly it seems that Pakistanis are the most vibrant ethnic group in England, Turks dominate German labor, and Algerians and Moroccans now control their former colonial masters in France.  Where, if anywhere, will it all end?  Today in the wake of the rebellion against Mohamar Ghaddaffi, Italy is being flooded with immigrants from its own former (albeit short lived) colony of Libya. 

1658 Antoine Cadillac, french colonial governor of America—he probably never owned an expensive automobile by a publicly owned General Motors might look like nor imagined what “Body by Fisher” would have meant three hundred-to-three hundred fifty years later.  My Louisiana-Frecnh born grandmother Helen loved Cadillacs (the GM cars) and knew something about the history of Antoine, Sieur de Cadillac, but how few others remember him?

 

1651 South Sea dike in Amsterdam breaks after storm 

1637 John van der Heyden, Dutch painter and inventor, fire extinguisher

 

1623 1st American temperance law enacted, Virginia
1616 Copernicus’ “de Revolutionibus” placed on Catholic Forbidden index; it was in EXCELLENT company of course and the words “Imprimatur, Nihil Obstat” written down by books approved by the Catholic Censors have become synonymous with the prior restraint which is expressly forbidden by the First Amendment.
1579 Betuwe joins Union of Utrecht
1558 Smoking tobacco introduced in Europe by Francisco Fernandes (pardon my French but WHAT AN F-ING DISASTER!)   March 5 should be a day of mourning for the millions of lung-cancer victims killed in Europe and the Americas as a result of this introduction.  I have little or no sympathy for smokers of tobacco in modern times, no more than I do for people who shoot themselves in the head or slit their wrists.  Smoking tobacco is basically an abomination without EVEN as much arguable benefit as smoking Cannabis Sativa L.
1528 Utrecht governor Maarten van Rossum plunders The Hague
1496 English king Henry VII hires John Cabot (Giovanni Caboto) to explore.  Cabot sailed across the North Atlantic to Newfoundland, Labrador, and what is now Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, explored the St. Lawrence River and opened up the great Western North Atlantic/Newfoundland fisheries to English fisherman—one of the greatest food resources ever exploited, paving the way for eventual English Colonization of these areas.
1461 Henry VI was deposed by Edward IV, coincidentally also the Fourth Duke of York, during War of the Roses; Edward IV was also was the 7th Earl of March, the 5th Earl of Cambridge, the 9th Earl of Ulster, and the 65th Knight of the Golden Fleece.  He reigned for Nine Years until he died in 1470 and was then succeeded by Henry VI who returned from but reigned only briefly before being dying under somewhat historically obscure circumstances.  Edward IV’s younger brother Richard became Richard III, the last King before Henry VII instituted the “Tudor” dynasty from Wales and ended the war of the Roses.   Second only two Henry V, “Richard III” is probably the best known of Shakespeare’s history plays and schoolboys, such as the author of this blog, were required to memorize “Now is the winter of our discontent, made glorious summer by this Sun of York, and all that glowered upon our house, in the deep bosom of the ocean buried” Soliloquy for approximately 400 years.  Should I recite it all in print here from memory?  You’ll pass?  Oh well, another time.  “Henry VI, Parts I , II, and III” together form Shakespeare’s longest and least memorable of the history plays, with no Jack Falstaff, no Harry Hotspur, no John of Gaunt, in short none of the wonderful characters that made Shakespeare’s other trilogy, Henry IV, Parts I, II, and III, not only tolerable but memorable. 

1326 Louis I, the Great, King of Hungary, 1342-82, Poland, 1370-82
1324 David II Bruce, king of Scotland, 1331 – 1371

 

1179 3rd Lateran Council (11th ecumenical council) opens in Rome.  March 5 was the first day of the Third Lateran, Eleventh Ecumenical Council.  But this day does not a great event in Christian history but arguably one of key events providing the reasons why the Universal Church failed to stay “universal”, and why the Pope in Rome was for many years seen to be the enemy of good religion and rational social policy.  Just for example, for the first time in Christian history (but in a tradition continuing to the present), priests were forbidden to marry or have friendship with women—even the sometimes apparently misogynistic St. Paul wrote  in one of his foulest moods: “It is better to Marry than to burn”.   The logic and morality behind a Celibate Clergy is simply incomprehensible in light of Christ’s teachings in the Gospels and Paul’s letters, not to mention the reality of human life—but it happened, at least “de jure” (never of course, “de facto”).  Sodomy was also forbidden and punishments provided, although how this prohibition was consistent with or supported the prohibition on priests having normal heterosexual relations to procreate is quite mysterious to the rational human mind.  Other “highlights” of the Third Lateran Council were increasingly oppressive laws against Jews and Muslims and “heretics” living in Christian Countries and provided automatic excommunication for anyone who lent money at interest (then known as “usury” without regard to any legal rate).   The Vatican City in Rome could do well to expunge and reverse all of these ordinances of the 3rd Lateran Council, although some charitable and educational and rational financial measures were also included (most notably positive was the prohibition on charing money for administration of any sacrament).